Black Holes: ObservationsLecture 2: BHs in close binaries Sergei Popov (SAI MSU)
2 Plan of the lecture Close binaries. Evolution. BH candidates Mass determination Systems BH+PSR – the astrophysical Holy Grail Spectra and states Variability. QPO. ULX – ultraluminous X-ray sources
3 Reviews astro-ph/0606352 X-ray Properties of Black-Hole Binaries astro-ph/0306213 Black Hole Binaries astro-ph/0308402 Intermediate-Mass Black Holes astro-ph/0410536 Accreting Neutron Stars and Black Holes: A Decade of Discoveries astro-ph/0410381 What can we learn about black-hole formation from black-hole X-ray binaries? gr-qc/0506078 Black Holes in Astrophysics astro-ph/0504185 Black Hole States: Accretion and Jet Ejection astro-ph/0501298 Class Transitions in Black Holes astro-ph/0410556 Inclination Effects and Beaming in Black Hole X-ray Binaries astro-ph/0312033 Evidence for Black Hole Spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE Spectroscopy of the Very High State arxiv:0706.2389 Models for microquasars arxiv:0706.2562 X-ray observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources
4 X-ray observations: Cyg X-1 “In the case of Cyg X-1black hole – is the mostconservative hypothesis” Edwin Salpeter The history of explorationof binary systems with BHsstarted about 35 years ago...
5 X-ray novae Low-mass binarieswith BHs One of the best candidates In the minimum it ispossible to see thesecondary companion,and so to get a good massestimated for a BH.
6 X-ray nova light curve (Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) A NS system A BH system
7 BH candidates Among 20 good candidates17 are X-ray novae. 3 belong to HMXBs(Cyg X-1, LMC X-3, GRS 1915+105). (J. Orosz, from astro-ph/0606352)
8 Candidates properties (astro-ph/0606352) Also there are about 20 “canditates to candidates”.
9 Mass determination here mx, mv - masses of a compact object and of a normal (in solar units), Kv – observed semi-amplitude of the line of sight velocity of the normal star (in km/s), P – orbital period (in days), e – orbital eccentricity, i – orbital inclination (the angle between the line of sightand the normal to the orbital plane).As one can see, the mass function of the normal star is the absolute lower limitfor the mass of the compact object.The mass of the compact object can be calculated as: So, to derive the mass of the compact object in addition to the line of sight velocity it is necessary to know independently two more parameters: the mass ratio q=mx/mv, and the orbital inclination i.
10 Black hole masses (Orosz 2002, see also Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) The horizontal line corresponds tothe mass equal to 3.2 solar.
11 Systems BH + radio pulsar: a Holy Grail The discovery of a BH in pair with a radio pulsar can provide the most direct proof of the very existence of BHs. Especially, it would be great to find a system with a millisecond pulsarobserved close to the orbital plane. Computer models provide different estimates of the abundance of such systems. Lipunov et al (1994) give an estimate aboutone system (with a PSR of any type)per 1000 isolated PSRs. Pfahl et al. (astro-ph/0502122) give muchlower estimate for systems BH+mPSR:about 0.1-1% of the number of binary NSs. This is understandable, as a BH should beborn by the secondary (i.e. initially less massive) component of a binary system.
12 Parameters of systems BH+PSR (Lipunov et al. 1994)
13 Spectra of BH candidates (Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) XTE 1118+480
14 The spectrum of Cyg X-1 (Miller et al. 2002, see Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) Absorption features are formed in the wind of the companion.
15 Jet from GRS 1915+105 (Mirabel, Rodrigez 1994, see Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) VLA data. Wavelength 3.5 cm.
16 States (luminosity+spectrum+jet) astro-ph/0306213 McClintock, Remillard Black holes on binary systems Now there are several classificationsof states of BH binaries. The understading that BH binariescan pass through different “states”(characterized by luminosity, spectrum,and other features, like radio emission)appeared in 1972 when Cyg X-1suddenly showed a drop in soft X-ray flux, rise in hard X-ray flux, and the radio source was turned on.
17 Three-state classification (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352) In this classification the luminosity is not used as one of parameters.
18 Discs and jets (Fender et al. 2004, Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352) The model for systems with radio jets LS – low/hard state HS – high/soft state VHS/IS –very high andintermediate states The shown data arefor the source GX 339-4.
19 GRO J1655-40 during a burst (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352) Red crosses – thermal state, Green triangles – steep power-law (SPL), Blue squares – hard state.
20 4U 1543-47 and H1743-322 (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352)
21 XTE J1550-564 and XTE J1859-226
22 QPO BH candidates demonstrate two main types of QPOs: Low-frequency (0.1-30 Hz) and high-frequency (40-450 Hz). Low-frequency QPOs are found in 14 out of 18 objects. They are observed during different states of sources. Probably, in different states different mechanisms of QPO are working. High-frequency QPOs are known in a smaller number of sources (7). It is supposed that frequencies of these QPOs correspond to the ISCO.
23 QPO and flux from a disc (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352) SPL – green triangles Hard – blue squares Intermediate states – black circles Probably, QPO mechanisms in the hard stateand in the SPL state are different. Low-frequency QPOs (their frequency and amplitude)correlate with spectral parameters.
24 QPO at high (for BHs) frequency (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352) All QPO at >100 Hzare observed onlyin the SPL state. Blue curves: for the range 13-30 keV. Red curves: for a wider range (towardslower energies).
25 QPOs and BH masses (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/0606352) XTE J1550-564, GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105 Dashed line is plotted for the relation ?0 = 931 Hz (M/MO)-1
26 Quescent luminosity vs. Orbital period (Garcia et al. 2001, see Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) Open symbols – neutron starsblack symbols – black holes.
27 GS 2000+25 and Nova Oph 1997 (Psaltis astro-ph/0410536) On the left – H? spectrum, On the right – the Dopler image See a review in Harlaftis 2001 (astro-ph/0012513) GS 2000+25 Nova Oph 1997 There are eclipse mapping, dopller tomography (shown in the figure), and echo tomography (see 0709.3500).
28 IR observ. of sources in quescent state arXiv:0707.0028 E. Gallo et al. “The spectral energy distribution of quiescent black hole X-ray binaries: new constraints from Spitzer” Excess at 8-24 microns. Possible explanation: jet synchrotron emission.
29 Ultraluminous X-ray sources ULXs are sources with fluxes whichcorrespond to an isotropic luminositylarger than the Eddington limitfor a 10 solar mass object. Now many sources of this type areknown. Their nature is unclear.Probably, the population contains both:stellar mass BHs with anisotropic emission and intermediate mass BHs.
30 ULXs in NGC 4490 and 4485 Six marked sources are ULXs
31 Spectrum of the ULX in NGC 1313 NGC 1313 X-1 Green line –the IMBH model. Red – thermal component. Blue – power-law. (arXiv 0726.2562)
32 Spectra of ULXs (arXiv 0706.2562)
33 ULX in galaxies of different types In the following two slides there are images of several galaxies from the SDSS in which positions of ULXs are marked. Crosses (x) mark sources with luminosities >1039 erg/s. Pluses (+) mark sources with luminosities >5 1038 erg/s. The size of one square element of the grid is 1.2 arcminute (except IZW 18, in which case the size is 0.24 arcminute in right ascension and 0.18 in declination). Galaxies NGC 4636, NGC 1132, NGC 4697, NGC 1399 are ellipticals, IZW 18 – irregular, the rest are spiral galaxies. Ellipses mark the 25-th magnitude isophotes(this a typical way to mark the size of a galaxy).
34 ULX in galaxies of different types NGC 1132 IZW 18 NGC 253 NGC 1291 IC 2574 NGC 1399
35 ULX in galaxies of different types NGC 2681 NGC 4697 NGC 4631 NGC 3184 NGC 4636
36 The source X-1 in М82 The source M82 X-1 is one of the most luminous, and so it is the best candidateto be an intermediate mass BH. QPOs are observed in this source. Their properties support the hypothesisof an intermediate mass BH. (http://www.pd.astro.it/oapd/2/2_1/2_1_5/2_1_5_1.html)
37 М82, stellar clusters and ULXs Intermediate mass BHs can be formed in dense stellar clusters. See, however, 0710.1181 wherethe authors show that forsolar metallicity even very massive stars mostprobably cannot produce BHs massive enough. McCrady et al (2003)
38 The population of ULXs Intermediate mass BHs Collimated emission from normal stellar mass BHs Different types of sources (pulsars, SNR, contamination) Background sources. Most probably, the population of ULXs in not uniform.