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Sydney (eng. Sydney, pronounced [?s?dni]) - Australia's largest city square 12144,6 km2, population of which is estimated for 2009 was approximately 4.5 million people. Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales. The city was founded in 1788, Arthur Philip, who arrived here at the head of the First fleet, and was the site of the first European colonial settlement in Australia. The city was named colonists in honor of the Lord Sydney - former Minister of colonies of great Britain.

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Sydney is located on the Southeast coast of Australia. The city is famous for its Opera house, harbour bridge and its beaches. The residential quarters of the greater Sydney, surrounded by national parks. Coastline (as external «sea», and inter-city) is extremely indented. It abounds with numerous bays, coves, Islands and beaches.

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Opera house national park Harbour bridge

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Urban areas of Sydney are located in the coastal valley, which is limited to the Pacific ocean in the East, the Blue mountains from the West, the Hawkesbury river in the North and the Royal national Park in the South. The coastline is indented with numerous bays and coves that were formed in the result of the fact that as the climate warms in the late glacial period and raising the level of the World ocean, the water flooded coastal river valleys and gorges of low mountains. Bay, Port Jackson, which includes Sydney harbour, Sydney harbour, is precisely such education and is the largest natural Bay in the world. On the territory of the residential areas of the city there are approximately 70 small bays and beaches, including the famous Bondi beach: Bondi Beach in the southern part of the city and manly beaches (English: Manly) in the North. Size of the residential areas of the city amounted, as of the 2001 year 1687 km2. However Bureau of statistics Sydney use in their estimates of a much larger area, including the Blue mountains, Central waterfront district and adjacent to the city's national parks. Thus, the total area of the greater Sydney is 12 145 km2.

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Sydney is located in the zone of subtropical oceanic climate is characterized by a moderately hot summer and moderately warm in the winter. Precipitation in the city, is distributed throughout the year with an advantage in the winter months. In areas of the city, directly adjacent to the ocean, the climate is more even, but in the Western districts of the city, located more deeply in mainland Australia, there are often more extreme temperature perturbations. The warmest month is January with an average temperature of 16.6-25.8 °C and the average number of days with temperatures over 30 C - 14,6. The absolute record temperature was recorded on 18 January 2013, during the wave of intense heat in Australia, air temperature amounted to 45.8 °C, in the suburbs to 47 degrees C. Powerful heat for several hours brought a strong hot West wind, which together with the sun for a few hours warmed the city on 24 degrees C. At the same time, on the next day the wind changed to reverse, and the temperature is above 22 degrees C has already went up. Winter temperatures rarely fall below 5 degrees C in coastal areas. The coldest month is July with the average daily temperature 8-16,2 degrees C. the lowest temperature was recorded in Sydney, at 2.1 °C.

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Sydney is prone to flooding, which arise as a result of heavy rains falling in the town is mostly in winter and spring time. Abundant precipitation in this period, in turn, caused by the passing over of the territories of Eastern Australia low pressure areas. In addition to heavy precipitation and the weather in this period is characterized by strong winds and frequent storms at sea. The great flood happened in Sydney on 6 August, 1986, when the city within 24 hours fell 327,6 millimeters of rainfall. This flooding led to the paralysis of transport in some parts of the city, and caused damage to many buildings.

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According to the 2006 census, in Sydney and its surroundings there were 4 119 190 population, while in the Sydney - 3 641 422. Most often people noted that they Australian, English, Irish, Scottish and Chinese origin. It also showed that in Sydney lives 1,1 % aboriginal, and 37.7 % of the population were born outside Australia. 18.1 % of city residents are immigrants from Asia. Three main sources of immigrants to Britain, China and New Zealand. Followed by Vietnam, Lebanon, India, Italy and the Philippines. Many residents other than English are fluent in at least one other language, mostly Chinese (Cantonese or North-China), Arabic, Greek and Vietnamese. Russian talked 13220 man, 156 of them did not answer the question about your level of English. Sydney is in seventh place in the world on percentages of foreign-born residents. Average age is 36 years, 15.4 % of older than 65, and 15.2 % have at least a bachelor's degree. According to the census 2011, Russian is spoken 15 431 people, 181 of them did not answer the question about the English. Lived in the city 4391674 dweller. 60,9 % of them considered themselves Christians, a 17.6 % do not adhere to any religion, 7.6 per cent did not answer the question, 4.7 % of Muslims, 4,1 % - Buddhists, and 2.6 % Hindus, 0,9 % - Jews and 1.6 % - representatives of other religions.

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