Infrastructure as Code: Why it Matters


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Infrastructure as Code Why it matters


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Carl Caum Puppet Labs Technical Marketing (I don’t know what that means either) @ccaum


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DevOps


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DevOps is a response to the adversarial culture found in traditional IT organizations


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“Ops won’t let us use the latest Ruby for some reason.” “Don’t the developers know anything about logging?” “Why can’t the developers build packages?” “Why does it take so long for Ops to deploy this code?” “Why won’t Ops just make this change? It’s small” “The devs don’t care that this code doesn’t scale.”


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The cause Dev Ops


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The solution Dev DevOps Ops


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Product Delivery Process Problem Statement Problem Prioritization Design / Development Deployment Monitoring Product Management Dev DevOps Ops


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The Three Ways -- Gene Kim


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Systems Thinking Understand the performance of the entire system, not each individual silo


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Amplify Feedback Loops Build quick, short, feedback into the process


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Culture of Experimentation and Learning Enforce a culture of continuous experimentation, risk taking, and learning.


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Top 5 Predictors of IT Performance Puppet Labs DevOps Survey


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● Peer reviewed change process When teams hold themselves accountable for the quality of its code through peer review, performance increases. Change Approval Boards (CABs) decrease performance. ● CABs have negligible impact on system stability while significant negative impact on throughput.


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● Version Control Single source of truth ● Causality is easily determined ● Benefits extend to both system and application configuration


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● Proactive Monitoring Diagnose problems faster ● Test the application, not just the infrastructure ● Post deploy tests


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High Trust Culture ● Bureaucracy kills (productivity) ● Trust increases throughput


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● Win-Win culture Act with expertise, not authority ● Interactions are about both teams achieving the shared business goals


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Empathy rarely extends beyond our line of sight


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● Help devs set up the development environment [ops] Empathy ● Help devs set up the CI system ● Understand the required infrastructure throughout the feature’s development


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● Understand the constant fires Ops deals with [dev] Empathy ● Help develop the deployment process for the feature ● Be on call ● Monitor the application post deployment


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The Business


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● Speed Business Goals ● Innovation ● Availability ● Stability


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● Time-to-market matters [Business] Speed ● Cycle time matters ● Dependable cadence matters


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● Collaboration [Business] Innovation ● Experimentation ● Rapid validation ● Market clarity


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[Business] Availability ● 70% of all downtime is caused by configuration drift and unauthorized configuration change* ● Downtime costs $2.5 billion for Fortune 1000* *Wiley Global Research


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[Business] Stability ● Infrastructure Trust ● Mean-time to recovery


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Infrastructure as Code


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DevOps is to Infrastructure as Code as Agile is to Scrum


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Infrastructure as Code is a requirement for DevOps, but is not sufficient


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Pragmatism


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Pragmatic Goals ● ● ● ● ● Production-like Dev Env Peer Review and Pairing Continuous Delivery Policy Driven Development Auditing


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● Code is portable Production-like Dev Env ● Code is reusable ● Code is version controlled (Vagrant is awesome)


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● Code can be contributed by anyone Peer Review and Pairing ● Code changes can be reviewed by anyone ● Code can be worked on as a team (give me git or give me death)


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● Code is repeatable Continuous Delivery ● Code is shareable ● Code is promotable ● Code is testable


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● Policies are for humans, not computers Policy Driven Development ● Constraints can be tested and enforced with code ● Tests can be run in any environment since code is portable


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● Code execution can provide detailed, accurate reports on actions taken Auditing ● Code promotion and execution provide authorization records ● Code run reports provide defensible audit trails


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Tips


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● Automate the most repetitive tasks in Ops Start ● Use Law of Accelerating Returns to increase admins’ free time ● Once a FTE’s worth of time is gained, have sysadmins spend more and more time working alongside developers


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● Approachability ● Opinionated The Language ● Declarative ● Idempotency ● Reporting


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Conclusion


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DevOps is about culture but requires pragmatism


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Collaboration is key in relation to the product delivery process


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Infrastructure as Code is necessary but is insufficient


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The language matters (period)


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Data Is Awesome Check out the Puppet Labs DevOps survey https://puppetlabs.com/2014-devops-report


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fin


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