UU????U?U ??O?I??¶A ???E?U??? Oai


The Presentation inside:

Slide 0

UU????U?U ??O?I??¶A ???E?U??? Oai ?C?UY? eaoEao?U?Y UU?n??µ?YaoAU?Y µ?AYC i?nCa


Slide 1

IU? I??U?ianaoUA U? O??ianiaoU ? ?UµnCaYCI NUaoei?IuCo, anA IaaiaoU ? ectoderm ?OCaoAU?Y 17 – 20 un»nC AYA?ouaoU aiaoOA O»?ianaoU ? Y»ni?UCY ACA»O ICe?EaOai?I EaOai?I ae?IA N?Y?Ce?YaoU ? a»nCy»nCI Y»UnaYY»nC ?OµUaon


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U»UnaiC?ao?EC??oC?


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U»ni?UCY EaOai?IC aa EC?nA»u O??ianaoU UC?OaoEaoU Spina bifida – U»I I?U UC u?YC aO»nC ?O»OY»nC UC?OaoEU?Y anao»eC O?EaOaoU Meningocele – aoO»OC ? aOYaoO»OC A?O?YAY»nC A?o?YoaoU ·?Y·C aeIn»nC I?U aOY???nC ?»y»IiC UCcai Myelocele – aOYaoO»OC A?o?YoaoU OaOi?ou?a?nI spina bifida Anencephaly – aoO»OC O??ianU?Y µY?ICY ?n?i` ·?Y·C ·?·?A?UCY aeIn»nC µ?o?I?UaoAU?Uµ, aoO»OC ? aoO»OCIC ICe?·Y?»nC, aoO»O?µYC ? µ???E N?Y·aoUoY»nC U?eY?IC I?U EnCi µ?o?I?UaoAU?Uµ


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?Yo»y?EC??oC? prosencephalon (?e?cY?UCY aoO»O) mesencepalon (UCcCY aoO»O) rhombencephalon (N»iCY aoO»O)


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Prosencephalon


Slide 6

Mesencephalon


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Rhombencephalon I?Uaonc ?nI?n?iaoY aoO»O aoO»OCI


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IU? I??U?ianU?Y ? O??ianU?Y oaoE»nA O??ianU?Y oaoE ?CUY?I?Y anao»eY»nA   U»n?IaoAUaoY U?-CY eIC?µ iiaO µcCcY»nC ?e?c?oaoU µ??U?oaoU µcCcY»nC n»ana?aoIoC? (UCia?) OC·n?oC? µcCcY»nC i»O?I?UaoU aoO»OC N?U?a?i?eE?Y N?ii?IY»naoU ?Cyy»n»YoC?oC? U»UnaYY»nC O??i?oaEaoU N?iaoI iCa»nC eCY?aia·»Y»? ??U?a?i?eE?Y eCY?aeY»nC I??U?ianaoU µcCcY»nC In?·n?iani?I aoOaoo “ ?»Oi?I” µcCcY»nC N»e?oaoU U?N uaoIoCaY?E N?ei?aoU u·i?·anIiaO eCY?aeY»nC aoA»O?oaoU


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?·?o?U?n?YY»nA i?IiCE ?·?o. ?e?cCYY ? ?n?»Y CeI 8 ??µ?A»I?Y N?e?IaoU ??n·?oaO aiaoOA a?i?eE?YaoU ? ?aonA»nCY ? ?Ui»nCY Iaa»EaoY, CeI 12 ??µ?AaoU Y??`U?nUYC ?UE U?e»nCY` ??UC ?·?oaOaoAUaoYA` 12 ??µ?AaoU EeaOaoAUaoYA - 22-24 ??µ?AaoU i»eaOaoAUaoYA – 3 ??µ?AaoU (hypermetropy – emetropy)


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? i»ncaoU


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IU? ?e?YOY?N?iIaoAUaoYY»nA »n»E?Y»nC Uai ??n·?oaoUA ??naoY?IiaoU ? IYi»Eaoo N»ia… aoO»OA N?U»U?i?µ?n U»I ? ¶?E?nY»nA ?IaeY»nA oaun »Y ? U?I»n»e?UCY O?I?i?UCY U?eA ?i»EC oaun ? IaIn?I?UCYCo aoO»OCIA oaun ? OC»ECYC??oC?Y ?»e ?i?nii?I a? ?nU?Y U?i?I?n?naoUA ?i»EC E?i ? aOYaoO»O?UCY N»OaoIC µ?O??naoAUaoYA i?nµ»n ? aOYaoO»OA ?OaoU ? ?i»EC ?n?· u?Y aOY???nA


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UU?n??µ?Y?I?Y ?YYaoUA eIeaoU ? NCi?Y?aoAU?Y a?iUaoAUaoYCo µ?n»I?U?I?Y I?a»n ?UaoeCYY»nC UCc? NOCaoAUaoYA IYY??µ»naoAUaoYA IYY??µ»n?I?Y in?iU?UC ?eI?UaoAUaoYA N»i?·? ??n·?oaoUA YU?n??µ?Y?I?Y NCi?Y?aoAUaoYY»n AYi?YCuaoU…


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UU?n??µ?Y?I?Y ?YYaoUA i?nµ»n ? i?nµ»n i?nCu?UCY EUµ»naoU Uan?IYC YU?n??µ?Y?I?Y ?YYaoUA ¶EEC ?nc?·CIA ¶EEC O?A ¶?OAaoYY»nA ? I?n?YY»nA ¶?Y·aoO»O?UCY YU?n?»nA (?auC ??nAaoUY»nA, ?»UuC eCU»inC?Y E?oC, II»Eao A?U?Y?I, EeaOaoAUaoYA) ?n»E?UC ??nAaoUY»nA N?Y·eiC iCO?IaoU, UI?Y?UCY iaYaoeA ? e»yE»ueY»nA ?Ya?UU?Y e»yE»ueY»nA ¶EEC IaYinaEA ? »n»E?UC ?CnuA


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¶EEC ?nc?·CIA ?»i?aoAUaoYY»nA aCiC I?i?ni»Y UC?UY a?oaoUY»nC NCU?Y in? ?»OaoUY»nA N?U?nA»u a»Y NCi?Y?aoAUaoYY»nCY


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¶EEC O?A Yan?IYC Uai Uan?IYC ·?Y·A O?I?i?UCY aeIn»nA i?o?I?I »Y IaIn?I?UCY aeInA Nni?I ? ?»aC ?e?c ·?·?A?UCY aeIn»nA µ?nOn?o?I »Y U»IA UUaoeC in? OC NCUYi»u a?oaoUY»nC in? ?Ue a?n?·?UaoU


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O»I ·?OAaoYA (?Y?iaUC?) Uan?ICYA aoYC 6 ·?OAaoY I?n?YY»nA IYi»ECe µ?o »Y


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O»I ·?OAaoY (a?oA) O»I ·?OAaoYC UCcCY a?oY ? 2.1 eU (?e?cCY unA 0,6-3,6 eU) ¶?OAaoYC o?Ii»Eao UCcCY A?UI»iA - 13.8 ?UCe (Am Fam Physician 2003;67:2547-52. Copyright© 2003 American Academy of Family Physicians)


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OI?Y?UCY iaYaoeA ? e»yE»ueY»nA i?nuA a?n?YaoC iaYaoeA O»eu»n ai»n


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?Ya?UU?Y e»yE»ueY»n ¶aoU IIU?Y ??ey Oaea


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?Ya?UU?Y e»yE»ueY»n ¶?E?Yi ?iiaU?iCI u?UEi?Iu µeY»Eao ¶EEC IaYinaE


Slide 21

?CUY?I?Y O»euµ»naoUY»nA


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?CUY?I?Y O»euµ»naoUY»nA


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a?AaEa·C?I?Y e»yE»ueY»n O»YCY·»?E N?U?Ei?YC? a???Uao?U?U OI?UU??? I??I?OaoAUaoU ¶EEC ?eµ»nU?Y e?NU?Y?o?IaoU` a?n?YaoC UI?YY»nC ?I?U? ea??UC a?iO?eai ?Ci?Y?A aC I?naO I?i?n»E IYai-InIu?UCY i»eiA


Slide 24

O»YCY·»?E N?U?Ei?YC? O??o? OI?UU??? I??I?OaoAUaoU O»cuC UI?YY»nC e?NU?Y?o?IaoU` erector spinae UI?YY»nC ea??UC N»i??Yuai I?naO ? YI?ii»E opisthotonus


Slide 25

O»YCY·»?E N?U?Ei?YC? µnao??CYeIao eCUaiaU ?Ci?Y?A a?nI?I ? U»cuC in? uCue»u Cn?YA ?YIaOYaoY ?eµ»n»u a?n?YaoA, IYaiA InIu?i?Y??ICY i»eiA ?n?I?Y ?, »nµ aiu»nA ?I?U? I?EiaoU »Y


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O»YCY·»?E N?U?Ei?YC? I?eU?¶? U??U ?Ci?Y?A a?nI?I ? U»cuC in? I?E»u ai»nA ???n»naoU ? IYIY»naoU 90? ?YIU?Y i?I yCue»u ???nA ? i?n?I»u aiA IYI?Y Na?aoU i»eiA ?n?I?Y ?, »nµ ?e?c?YaoU ? ?CU??naoAUaoY IaoYIA µ?o»ECe o?i IYI?oaeaoU


Slide 27

?»i??aiaoAUaoYY»n ¶aiI?UCY aaoYIoC? U»UnaeaYa·n?yC? Ii Oei ??¶


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¶aiI?UCY aaoYIoC? I?i?niaoU ? L3-L4 aO»nC U?I?n??ICY oaun »n?E?Y»nC ? L2-L3 U»I »n»E?Y»nC Uai


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¶aiI?UCY aaoYIoC? ¶a I?i?niaoU ? µaoAU?Y ? ?Eiana?U?Y Ya?i?IY»nai IU?-C CYy»IoC?Y»n ?nUaoY??»OaoU (Uo?, eao? ) ?C?nao»y?EC? µ?nOn Y»n·?Y·?UCY OY?aoU ? ?UEY


Slide 30

aOYaoO»O?UCY N»OaoIA i?nµ»n i?nCu?UCY EUµ»naoU (YanU?/a?A.)


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U»UnaiC?ao?EC??oC? U»UnaeaYa·n?yC? – I?i?naoUA ?n?· ? N»?i – oanau?UCY N?U?I?n·, U?Ina?Y?iaUC? Ii - E?i ? oaoUo i?ECe oanau?UCY N?U?I?n·A ? Ea?an iY?ei?IuY»nA Oei – I?eaooi?Iu?UCY oaoaEaoAUaoYY»nA ? ?UEY ??¶ – UC?UY oYoaoUY»nA ?Eiana?»Eao Ya?i?Iai


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