INTERANNUAL DYNAMICS OF THE BLACK SEA ANOXIC ZONE BOUNDARY IN CONNECTION WITH CLIMATIC VARIABILITY E. V. YAKUSHEV, O.I.PODYMOV Southern Branch of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Gelendzhik, Russia o Gelendzhik
Oxic/anoxic interface O2 and NO3 dissappears H2S, NH4, CH4 and Mn2+ onsets Changeability (maxNO3, minPO4, grad H2S, grad Mn2+) is situated below CIL with winter aeration Stability ib the density field region? season? eddies? climate?
Data of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology expeditions : about 1400 Stations 1984-1990 1991-2004
Interannual variability of H2S onset and averaged O2 content in CIL Mean winter air temperature(Gelendzhik) T in the CIL core in summer-autumn period (Krivosheya et al., 2002) Oscillations of NAO indices for winter period
Interannual variability of H2S, NH4,Mn, CH4 onsets and averaged O2 content in CIL
Scheme of oxygen balance in the Black Sea
Anoxic boundary position is an indicator of climatic changes. Interannual oscillations of the Black Sea H2S boundary at about 0.05-0.10 kg/m3 (5-10 m). The change of volume of the oxic waters for about 5-10%, where the Black Sea oxic ecosystem is situated. Such oscillations are vitally significant and should be studied. CONCLUSIONS:
STUDY OF THE SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF HYDROCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE NORTHEASTERN BLACK SEA AS AN EXAMPLE OF GELENDZHIK AND GOLUBAYA BAYS E. V. YAKUSHEV, E. A. ANTIPOVA, V. K. CHASOVNIKOV, I. A. KOVALEVA Southern Branch of P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Gelendzhik, Russia o Gelendzhik
Gelendzhik bay restricted water exchange with the sea. resort area ( 2 million men in 2004 )
SB SIO occupies the area of 18 hectares (marked with green). Blue Bay
Sampling in 2 points every week since 1999 Gelendzhik bay surveys in January and June O2, pH, Alk, PO4, Ptot, Si, NO3, NO2, NH4, Ntot,Urea, Mn, H2S, CH4, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu , Oil products, surfactants, phyto-, zoo-, bacteria- plankton Position:
Winter 2001 survey Salinity, psu Si , ?M Porg, mM NH4 , ?M NO3 , ?M Phyto, mg/m3
Oil products on the surface 25.06.2001 (left) and 03.02.2005 (right). extremely complex and unstable hydrophysical structure ? Spot-like distribution. local maximums of increased concentrations can be observed in different parts of the bay and affect its ecosystem.
Seasonal changes in 2000 seasonality rains CGel>CGol P-limited
Seasonal variability of dissolved oxygen (left) and phosphate (right) in Gelendzhik (squares) and Golubaya (crosses) bays in 2000, 2003, 2004. O2 PO4 waterspout events: PO4>6.5 ?М, NO3>18 ?М, NH4>24 ?М 1.5 mln in 2000, 2.0 mln in 2004: Increased eutrophication?
Gelendzhik Bay is a local source of pollution connected with resort business: Increased influx of man-made pollutants (heavy metals, oil, surfactants) Phosphate doesn’t limit photosynthesis during the summer period. Eutrophication: increased nutrient (N, P) influx in inorganic and organic forms. Abnormal ecosystem development. Appearance of toxic species.