BRACKETS have two main uses (For further discussion, see Abdo  and Burgat .) 1. Using brackets inside parenthetical comments: [ ] 2. Using brackets to insert information into a quotation: Miss Lee reports that “The other day a child in the reception class [kindergarten] in Myatt Gardens told me a story about September 11.”
SLASH has two main uses on/off switch and/or a pass/fail class 1. Using slashed in paired terms: / 2. Using slashes with dates and fractions : 10/31/2009 - October 31, 2009 1/2 15/16
QUOTATION MARKS “ ” “Quoting one is plagiarism. Quoting many is research.” Smile with us!
QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 1. Using quotation marks for titles of short works to indicate: - the name of a show or exhibition; “ ” “Goya’s Last Works,” at the Frick, isn’t large. - the titles; “The Making of Americans” was a work that Stein evidently had to get out of her system.
QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 2. Using quotation marks to indicate you are using a word as a word: “ ” And by “malignant” and “addictive” I do not mean evil or hypnotizing. With computers, italics can replace quotation marks.
QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 3. Using quotation marks to indicate technical terms and words from other languages: “ ” As I explain in the pages that follow, we come from a tradition of “free culture” - not “free” as in “free beer” (to borrow a phrase from the founder of the free software movement), but “free” as in “free speech”, “free markets”, “free trade”, “free enterprise”, “free will”, and “free election.”
QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 4. Using quotation marks to indicate direct quotation: “ ” David Foster Wallace believes that “fiction writers as a species tend to be ogles.”
QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 5. Using quotation marks to indicate speech: “ ” The woman asked me, “Would you be interested in full-time elf or evening and weekend elf?” 6. Using quotation marks to show irony: To quantify the “”benefit” side of the equation, a dollar amount is assigned to each saved human’s life.
APOSTROPHES have two main uses 1. Using apostrophes to make contractions: ’ I am = I’m you are = you’re we have = we’ve I would = I’d she is = she’s do not = don’t 2. Using apostrophes to make possessives: Discovery Channel’s news reality television show is Last One Standing. Remember the difference between it’s and its: It’s = it is Its = the possessive form of the pronoun it
PERIODS have two main uses Mon. = Monday Mr. = Mister Co. = Company etc. = etcetera Inc. = Incorporated St. = Street 1. Using periods with some abbreviations: John F. Kennedy W. J. Mitchell a.m./am = ante meridiem If an abbreviation is of names, put a space after each period. If an abbreviation is of other words, do not put spaces after the periods.
PERIODS have two main uses 2. Using periods to the end sentences that make statements or commands: The basic genre that World of Warcraft belongs to is called the massively multiplayer online game, or M.M.O. Remember! If a sentence ends with an abbreviation, do not put another period at the end of the sentence: Water buffalo do not exist in Africa.
PERIODS have two main uses She told me to walk as far as the corner. (At least, I think that’s what she said.) Remember! If you put a complete sentence inside parentheses, end the sentence with a period inside the parentheses: Remember! If parentheses contain less than a complete sentence, do not give them any end punctuation: The toxins are mostly made up of 5-nucleotidase and phosphodiesterase, which are cytotoxins (which kill cells and tissue) and result in local necrosis (tissue death).
? QUESTION MARKS have two main uses He asked how the test had gone. 1. Using question marks to the end sentences that are questions: 2. Using question marks to show doubt about dates and numbers: Tin this photograph, Reynolds is seen with his mother in 1928 (?). But! Don’t use question marks in indirect questions: What is education?
! EXCLAMATION POINTS have one main uses Help! Don’t touch that burner! Using exclamation points to indicate to readers that a sentence carries emotional weight:
1. Analytical Reading: Capitals and Numbers / Stephen Reid. The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers. - P. 548. 2. Be ready to take a test on Punctuation and Mechanics. Homework
Lecture 3: E-mail: [email protected] bagumyan.at.ua KISS – Keep it Short and Simple Questions? Thanks a lot