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BRACKETS have two main uses (For further discussion, see Abdo [2000] and Burgat [2003].) 1. Using brackets inside parenthetical comments: [ ] 2. Using brackets to insert information into a quotation: Miss Lee reports that “The other day a child in the reception class [kindergarten] in Myatt Gardens told me a story about September 11.”

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SLASH has two main uses on/off switch and/or a pass/fail class 1. Using slashed in paired terms: / 2. Using slashes with dates and fractions : 10/31/2009 - October 31, 2009 1/2 15/16

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QUOTATION MARKS “ ” “Quoting one is plagiarism. Quoting many is research.” Smile with us!

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QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 1. Using quotation marks for titles of short works to indicate: - the name of a show or exhibition; “ ” “Goya’s Last Works,” at the Frick, isn’t large. - the titles; “The Making of Americans” was a work that Stein evidently had to get out of her system.

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QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 2. Using quotation marks to indicate you are using a word as a word: “ ” And by “malignant” and “addictive” I do not mean evil or hypnotizing. With computers, italics can replace quotation marks.

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QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 3. Using quotation marks to indicate technical terms and words from other languages: “ ” As I explain in the pages that follow, we come from a tradition of “free culture” - not “free” as in “free beer” (to borrow a phrase from the founder of the free software movement), but “free” as in “free speech”, “free markets”, “free trade”, “free enterprise”, “free will”, and “free election.”

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QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 4. Using quotation marks to indicate direct quotation: “ ” David Foster Wallace believes that “fiction writers as a species tend to be ogles.”

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QUOTATION MARKS have six main uses 5. Using quotation marks to indicate speech: “ ” The woman asked me, “Would you be interested in full-time elf or evening and weekend elf?” 6. Using quotation marks to show irony: To quantify the “”benefit” side of the equation, a dollar amount is assigned to each saved human’s life.

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APOSTROPHES have two main uses 1. Using apostrophes to make contractions: ’ I am = I’m you are = you’re we have = we’ve I would = I’d she is = she’s do not = don’t 2. Using apostrophes to make possessives: Discovery Channel’s news reality television show is Last One Standing. Remember the difference between it’s and its: It’s = it is Its = the possessive form of the pronoun it

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PERIODS have two main uses Mon. = Monday Mr. = Mister Co. = Company etc. = etcetera Inc. = Incorporated St. = Street 1. Using periods with some abbreviations: John F. Kennedy W. J. Mitchell a.m./am = ante meridiem If an abbreviation is of names, put a space after each period. If an abbreviation is of other words, do not put spaces after the periods.

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PERIODS have two main uses 2. Using periods to the end sentences that make statements or commands: The basic genre that World of Warcraft belongs to is called the massively multiplayer online game, or M.M.O. Remember! If a sentence ends with an abbreviation, do not put another period at the end of the sentence: Water buffalo do not exist in Africa.

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PERIODS have two main uses She told me to walk as far as the corner. (At least, I think that’s what she said.) Remember! If you put a complete sentence inside parentheses, end the sentence with a period inside the parentheses: Remember! If parentheses contain less than a complete sentence, do not give them any end punctuation: The toxins are mostly made up of 5-nucleotidase and phosphodiesterase, which are cytotoxins (which kill cells and tissue) and result in local necrosis (tissue death).

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? QUESTION MARKS have two main uses He asked how the test had gone. 1. Using question marks to the end sentences that are questions: 2. Using question marks to show doubt about dates and numbers: Tin this photograph, Reynolds is seen with his mother in 1928 (?). But! Don’t use question marks in indirect questions: What is education?

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! EXCLAMATION POINTS have one main uses Help! Don’t touch that burner! Using exclamation points to indicate to readers that a sentence carries emotional weight:

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1. Analytical Reading: Capitals and Numbers / Stephen Reid. The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers. - P. 548. 2. Be ready to take a test on Punctuation and Mechanics. Homework

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Lecture 3: E-mail: [email protected] bagumyan.at.ua KISS – Keep it Short and Simple Questions? Thanks a lot