SineWave


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 SineWave Active Harmonic Conditioner Проблема гармоник в системах электропитания и новые решения T H E U N I N T E R R U P T I B L E P O W E R P R O V I D E R www.mgeups.com SineWave – активный кондиционер гармоник MGE UPS SYSTEMS


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Обзор Введение в проблему гармоник Общие решения Новое решение SineWave Характеристики


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Введение в теорию гармоник


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Низковольтное оборудование X X X X X X X X X X X X X Оборудование в здании Компьютеры и Телекоммуникации Индустри альное PLC Lighting Air conditioning M.V. Основной источник Резервный источник


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 С первого взгляда Гармонические токи присутствуют виртуально во всех системах ... Они не всегда нарушают работу источников питания и нагрузок... Качество питания достаточное на настоящий момент... НО....!


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 При ближайшем рассмотрении...... Сбои и нарушения появляются все чаще ... Источники питания, автоматы защиты и кабели подвергаются пагубному влиянию гармонических токов ... Неуклонное увеличение количества нелинейных нагрузок ... гармоники могут нарушить работу в любое время... Ваше оборудование в опасности ...!


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Линейная и нелинейная нагрузки Спектр кривой тока Полезные советы Гармоники: основные концепции


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 линейная нагрузка: Нагрузка называется линейной, когда форма кривой тока имеет туже форму что и напряжение. Такой ток не имеет гармонических составляющих. Примеры нагрузок: активное сопротивление в нагревательных приборах, индуктивная нагрузка в установившемся режиме (мотор, трансформатор, итд.). нелинейная нагрузка: нагрузка называется нелинейной когда форма тока потребления не совпадает с кривой потребления напряжения.Ток имеет высшие гармоники. Спектр гармоник зависит от типа нагрузки. Терристорные источники питания, мотор в момент пуска, трансформаторы в момент включения. Линейная и нелинейная нагрузки U I U I


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Любой периодический сигнал с частотой f можно представить в виде суммы составляющих синусоидальных сигналов : Основного синусоидального сигнала с частотой f, так называемой фундаментальной (h1) . Синусоидальных составляющих с частотами кратными порядку сигнала, так называемыми гармониками (hn). составляющей постоянного тока. пример : Состав периодического сигнала y h h t t t ( ) ( ) ( ) ? ? 1 3 y (t) h1 (t) h3 (t)


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Порядок и спектр гармоник Порядок: порядок гармоники определяет ее частоту (множитель основной частоты). Пример: при основной частоте 50 Гц, гармоника пятого порядка имеет частоту 5 x 50 = 250 Hz. Спектр: Спектр сигнала – это графическое представление зависимости амплитуды гармоники от ее частоты. Спектр амплитуд гармоник в отношении от основной 0 50 100


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 3-я гармоника : специальный случай 3-я гармоника тока генерируется всеми однофазными нелинейными нагрузками single-phase non-linear loads (освещение , компьютерное оборудование, миникомпьютеры, etc.). По нейтральному проводнику течет ток 3 x i h3 a также токи возникающие при несбалансированных фазах. Сечение нейтрали должно учитываться ( в 1.7 раза больше фазного проводника для терристорных источников ). Предпочтительнее по возможности использование системы TNS вместо TNC. I1 I2 I3 In = 0 i1 (h3) i2 (h3) i3 (h3) in = 3.i h3


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 RMS – среднеквадратическое значение Значение rms несинусоидального периодического сигнала : H1 = основная частота. H2, ..., Hn = высшие гармоники аббревиатура rms - Root Mean Square. * пример. - подсчитаем rms тока однофазной нагрузки такой как PC : I fund. = 56.2A; Ih3 = 27.2A; Ih5 = 2.7A; Ih7 = 9.2A; Ih9 = 7.8A. = 63.6 A


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Гармоническое искажение Полное гармоническое искажение (THD) : Это отношение значения rms всех гармоник к значению основной гармоники (CIGREE определение) THD H H Hn H % . . . ? ? ? ? ? 100 2 3 1 2 2 2 Отношение каждой гармоники : Отношение значения rms гармоники порядка nth к rms значению фундаментальной ??100


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Крест фактор : Отношение пикового значения к среднеквадратичному rms . Крест фактор Fc = Peak value rms value * Примеры крест факторов для различных нагрузок : - линейная нагрузка ......................Fc = 1.414 = - компьютерная нагрузка ................Fc = 2 to 2.5 - PC ..................................Fc = 2.2 to 3.5


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Коэффициент мощности Коэффициент мощности ? (lambda) : Отношение активной мощности P а полной мощности S P в ваттах (W) и S в вольт-амперах (VA). Не путать коэффициент мощности со значением сдвига фазы cos ? 1 Пример вычисления: Подсчитаем коэффициент мощности компьютерной нагрузки с активной мощностью 12 кВт и средним током rms равным 74 A при 220V


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 ?? Если напряжение и ток полностью синусоидальны, cos ? 1 равен коэффициенту мощности Сдвиг фазы Сдвиг фазы "cos 1" Косинус угла образованный напряжением и током основной частоты. P1 = активная мощность основной компоненты. S1 = полная мощность основной компоненты. * cos ? 1 , сдвиг фазы. * Для компьютерной нагрузки, cos ? 1 около 1 и коэффициент мощности ? around 0.74. ??


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Distortion factor - for a non-linear load, the distorsion factor defines the relationship between the power factor and the phase displacement factor Distortion factor - if the voltage and the current are perfectly sinusoidal, the distortion factor is equal to 1, i.e. :


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Origins of the harmonics Industrial and commercial non-linear loads


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 0 20 40 60 80 100 H1 H5 H7 H11 H13 H17 H19 S=122KVA Fc=1.5 THDI=30% Current drawn Is Diagram Harmonic spectrum 28% H5, 5% H7, 6% H11, ... Rectifier - charger * 3-phase loads * controlled Graetz bridges generate high harmonic currents of ranks 5, 7, 11, 13, ... 3-phase loads


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Diagram (without inductances) S=23KVA Fc=2.8 THDI=124% 81% H5, 74% H7, 42% H11, ... 3-phase loads Current drawn Is Harmonic spectrum


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 RCD type loads 78% H3, 44% H5, 17% H7, ... 0 50 100 H1 H3 H5 H7 H9 H11 H13 H15 H17 Diagram S=8.5KVA Fc=2.4 THDI=93% Single-phase loads Current drawn Is Harmonic spectrum


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 S=180VA Fc=1.7 THDI=37% 36% H3, 3% H5 0 50 100 H1 H3 H5 H7 Single-phase loads Current drawn Is Harmonic spectrum


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 0 20 40 60 80 100 H1 H3 H5 H7 H9 H11 H13 Television Studio * PCs * TV monitor receivers S=14KVA Fc=1.9 THDI=54% H13 H15 * Lighting 48% H3, 16% H7, 13% H9... Single-phase loads Current drawn Is Harmonic spectrum


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Harmonics: harmfull effects


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Generalities Effects due to the increase of the total RMS current : overheating of all the equipment of the AC distribution system. damage to the insulating material lower electrical and mechanical efficiency of the loads derating of generators and protection circuit breakers damage to the neutral conductor Effects due to the distorsion of the voltage : increase of the harmonic voltage distorsion (source, and end of the cable). break down of sensitive electronic equipment derating of the power supplies flicker on ligthing and monitor screen . Harmful effects : two types accelerated ageing misoperations


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Harmfull effects in the distribution Increased THDU Increased RMS current


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Summary All the components of an electrical installation are concerned by these harmful effects. Many devices cause harmonic disturbances and at the same time are subject to both the instantaneous and long-term effects of harmonic currents, including : Overconsumption of rms current. Unnecessary tripping of protection devices. Damage to capacitors and risk of resonance. Additional heating of cables, transformers, motors and reactors. Incorrect operation of sensitive loads. Disturbance of remote control and telecommunications systems. Vibrations and noise (rotating equipment, transformers, LV switchboards, ...). ... Accelerate ageing of all the components of your installation... YOUR PRODUCTION RESOURCES ARE IN DANGER.


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Regulations * EMC standards fix the levels of voltage disturbances that can be emitted or withstood by an electrical device (susceptibility - immunity - compatibility). e.g. IEC 1000-2-2: fixes the level as a u.hn / Un expressed as a percentage. * Harmonics standards fix the levels of current disturbances that can be emitted by an electrical device. IEC 1000 -3-2 / EN 61000-3-2 : Concerns loads consuming In < 16 A / phases. Includes a class D specific to devices with RCD type power supplies and with power ratings 75 W < Pn < 600 W. (e.g. h3 = 2.3 A , h5 = 1.15 A ...). IEC 1000 -3-4 / EN 61000-3-4 : Standard in preparation for loads consuming In > 16 A / phase with a maximum power of Pn = 250 kVA. Industrial applications: e.g. in France, agreement of EDF required (automatic for low power devices, uncertain and retractable for others). USA: IEEE 519-2, UK: G 5/4 Special regulation and tarifs from utilitites Standards and rules : at present ...


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Reducing harmonic disturbances Electrotechnical solutions Active harmonic conditioning Topologies and principles


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Electrotechnical solutions normal or replacement sources oversizing of sources, cables, etc. transformers with different couplings tuned filters anti-harm. reactors p1 = p2 p1 = p2 h5 h7 L - The harmonics are not eliminated. - Very costly. 2 limits h3 and multiples. 4 5 6 1 h7 (6-pulse bridge). 5 6 attenuates harmonics at the tuning frequency. decreases THD(i). 1 3 4 and attenuate h5 and


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 SineWave Active Conditioner Product presentation SineWave range Single-line diagram Design and standard solution


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Operating principles If. (fundamental) = + Source non linear load active conditioner I.s I.l I.c I. source I. load IH. (harmonics) I. conditioner I load = I source + I conditioner


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Role of the various components C2 - C3 precharge: R1 - K1. attenuation filter F. chopping : Lf, Cf. PWM converter: IGBT converter and C2 - C3 energy storage. Current load sensors : CT1. input protection: circuit breaker CB . I_converter sensors: CT2. control electronics including: - harmonic tapping module - regulation unit for Icnv and Udc as well as internal monitoring (overloads, faults). - converter control module. R1 Cf Lf L1 CT2 K1 C2 C3 CONTROL ELECTRONICS Ih Im Udc Control signals CONVERTER source load Extraction of harmonics Regulation and monitoring Generation of control signals CT1 X X CB


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 SineWave range a complete range : 20 A - 30 A - 45 A - 60 A - 90 A - 120 A SW 20 - SW 30 20 A - 30 A SW 45 - SW 60 45 A - 60 A SW 90 - SW 120 90 A - 120 A


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 H * W * D in mm Dimensions and weight H W D SW 20 - SW 30 (20 and 30 A): = 680 * 540 * 280 . Weight: 65 Kg . SW 45 - SW 60 (45 and 60 A): = 780 * 590 * 325 . Weight: 110 Kg . SW 90 - SW 120 (90 and 120 A): 90 and 120 A = 2 identical enclosures = 780 * 590 * 325 . Weight: 2 x 110 Kg . Small size. Easy Integration!


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Standard features Simplified complete SineWave includes everything for a simple and functional basic solution: - EMC filter to comply with EN55011 level A and IEC 1000-4 - 7 languages user interface - diagnostic and maintenance menu - basic indications by 3 LEDs - relay contacts for remote indications - terminal blocks for power and sensor connections - large choice of current transformers : split or closed - compensation of harmonic currents and phase displacement ( cos 1). solution.


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Operation *conditioner on *current limiting *conditioner off 1 2 1 2 User interface Indications Operation: simple and complete (Information available via relay contacts) features !


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Options Display unit installed on panel door Parallel connection of 4 units open or closed sensors closed : optional split : standard RS 485 communications port - JBUS protocol monitoring software (98) Extended features ! cable Rating : 300/1, 500/1, 600/1, 1000/1, 1500/1, 2000/1, 3000/1, 4000/1 .


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Remote indications and communication RS 485 communications port and JBUS protocol ( for remote control, alarms and measurements) Remote display unit on switchboard door L max = 3 m. L max = 1200 m. Relay contact terminals : 2VA, 30V max., 1 A .


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 User interface Display: back-lit LCD screen 21 characters x 6 lines 7 languages (Dutch, French, German, Italian Spanish, UK English, US English) Keypad (20 keys): number keys ( 0 - 9 ) function keys ( F1-F2-F3 ) control keys ( ESC-ENT- RUN - STOP keys with security cover. On back of display unit: SUBD9 connector start-up disabling switch. ) F1 RUN help menu-dependent enter escape on STOP off F2 F3 ENT ESC


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Possibilities Language French English Main measurements Mains and load: * rms currents I1, I2, I3, In * total harmonic distortion THDI * SW load level for each phase * mains phase-to-phase voltage store Other measurements Alarms * mains voltage and frequency outside tolerances - SW current limiting * SW over-temperature - control/monitoring board fault - power supply board fault - internal fault - start-up disabled. ENT * harmonic spectrum H2 to H13 and THDI of mains and load ENT


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Parameters Configuration J BUS communication Identification Reserved access Configuration - password * type of sensors (rating) * neutral (distributed or not) * remote on/off enable/disable * reactive power compensation enable/disable * harmonics Hn to be conditioned (H3 to H25) JBUS communication * slave address * speed * format * parity * stop bits Identification * serial number * SW rating and type * voltage and frequency * installation with or without neutral * software Reserved access * coded information for After-Sales support


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 PERFORMANCE AND RESULTS Overall performance Results for three-phase loads Results for single-phase loads


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Input voltage : 400 V , - 20 % , + 15 % phases : 3-phase with or without neutral. Compatible operation with single phase and unbalanced load frequency : 50 Hz or 60 Hz, +/- 8 % auto-sensing Compensation characteristics harmonics covered : H 2 to H 25 type of compensation : harmonics - cos - mixed (Hn + cos ) compensation mode : overall or selective (specific harmonics) * Configuration of standard application (loads) attenuation ratio : >10 at full load ( THDI) cos 1 correction : up to 1 THDU reducing : according to the installation parameters, THDU reducing will be determinated by the SITE AUDIT response time : < 40 ms in overall current compensation mode. overload : automatical current limitation Overall performance


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 120 kVA UPS rectifier / charger I phase = 237A THDI = 28% S = 156 kVA Power factor = 0.82 Cos phi 1 = 0.86 I phase = 231 A THDI (reduced by a factor of 10) = 2.8 % S = 136 kVA Power factor = 0.94 Cos phi 1 = 0.94 mains current without SineWave mains current with SineWave mixed compensation (Hn + rephasing)


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 6-pulse Graetz bridge I phase = 37 A THDI = 88 % S = 8.2 kVA Power factor = 0.63 Cos phi 1 = 0.84 I phase = 25A (-32%) THDI (reduced by a factor of 9) = 9.5% S = 5.5 kVA Power factor = 0.99 Cos phi 1 = 1 (in fact limited to 0.94) mains current without SineWave mains current with SineWave mixed compensation (Hn + rephasing)


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Case studies ELF Aquitaine Other case studies Swissair STNA: Technical department of Air Traffic Control Hewlett Packard


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Comparison A.H.C and passive filter harmonics current requires one filter by frequency control at the same time of control (bulky) several harmonics currents freqency variation decrease of efficiency no influence influence impedance modification risk of resonance no influence influence current increase risk of overload and no risk of overload influence destruction (less efficiency) addition of equipment in some cases, modification without problems if AHC (loads) of the filter is required current >load harm. current control by harmonic order very difficult possible by customisation fundamental frequency impossible possible by customisation changing overall dimensions, weight important small Passive filter Active harmonic filter


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 OPERATING CONFIGURATIONS AND INSTALLATION Installation points Operating configurations


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Installation points C A M M M Final distribution enclosure feeder S1 feeder S2 feeder S3 AHC AHC AHC B Secondary switchboard Main LV Switchboard (MLVS) feeder MS1 feeder MS2 feeder MSn LV local conditioning partial conditioning overall conditioning The installation point is chosen as a function of technical and economic criteria depending on : - available measurements - the required degree of conditioning.


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 -1,5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1,5 Single-unit configuration -2,5 -2 -1,5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1,5 2 2,5 Irms = 18.1A, THDI = 7.5%, Fc = 1.46 Irms = 24.8A, THDI = 104.8%, Fc = 2.92 I mains I load Office PC Workstation printer Portable computer MLVS Computer switchboard 3 current transformers may be connected to one SineWave (compensation of 3 different feeders).


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Parallel configuration Secondary LV switchboard * Parallel connection of up to 4 SineWave units (same ratings). * 1 common sensor. Non-linear loads common sensor modification extension SW 1 SW 2


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 Cascade configuration This configuration can be used for instance to : - compensate feeder 2 for a particular harmonic (e.g. H3) using SW2 - compensate feeder 1 for all harmonics (e.g. H5, H7 H9 ...) using SW1, which also provides additional compensation of feeder 2 if required. Secondary LV switchboard sensor 1 sensor 2 SW 2 SW 1 feeder 1 Non-linear loads feeder 2


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 SineWave : advantages ADAPTABILITY: * for all types of loads (single-phase or three-phase) and all spectrums. Ease of connection to the AC system. FLEXIBILITY: * installation at any point in the installation (local, partial or overall conditioning). Total flexibility. UPGRADABILITY: * harmonic conditioning capacity can be increased by parallel connection of up to 4 SineWave units. PERFORMANCE: * THDI (total harmonic distortion of current) reduced by more than 10 times . AVAILABILITY: * shunt topology for continuous power availability and current limiting for protection against overloads. EASY INSTALLATION: * anywhere in the installation, in a LV switchboard or mounted on a wall, split toroids . Maximum ease of integration . SAVINGS ON Gen Sets, Transformers * by reduction of the rms current consumed.


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Power Quality Solutions S. BERNARD - OCTOBER 2001 MGE UPS SYSTEMS the uninterruptible power provider Thank you for your attention


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