Pressurized water reactor (PWR)Водо-водяной энергетический реактор (ВВЭР)


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Pressurized water reactor (PWR) Водо-водяной энергетический реактор (ВВЭР)


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Power transfer


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Power transfer in PWR Nuclear fuel in the reactor vessel is engaged in a fission chain reaction, which produces heat, heating the water in the primary coolant loop. The hot primary coolant is pumped into steam generator. Heat is transferred to the lower pressure secondary coolant where it evaporates to pressurized steam. The pressurized steam is fed through a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator connected to the electric grid for distribution. After passing through the turbine the secondary coolant is cooled down and condensed in a condenser. The condenser converts the steam to a liquid so that it can be pumped back into the steam generator.


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Передача энергии в ВВЭР Ядерное топливо в реакторе участвует в цепной реакции деления, которая производит тепло, используемое для нагревания воды первого контура. Горячий теплоноситель первого контура поступает в парогенератор. Тепло передается теплоносителю второго контура с более низким давлением, где он (теплоноситель) превращается в пар. Пар поступает в паровую турбину, которая вращает электрический генератор, связанный с распределительной электрической сетью. После прохождения через турбину теплоноситель второго контура охлаждается и конденсируется в конденсаторе. В конденсаторе пар превращается в воду, так что она может поступить обратно в парогенератор.


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Construction of PWR


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Coolant (Теплоноситель) Light water is used as the primary coolant in the PWR. It enters the bottom of the reactor core at about 275 °C and is heated as it flows upwards through the reactor core to a temperature of about 315 °C. The coolant is pumped around the primary circuit by powerful pumps, which can consume up to 6 MW each. After picking up heat as it passes through the reactor core, the primary coolant transfers heat in a steam generator to water in a lower pressure secondary circuit, evaporating the secondary coolant to saturated steam – in most designs 6.2 MPa, 275 °C – for use in the steam turbine. The cooled primary coolant is then returned to the reactor vessel to be heated again.


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Moderator (Замедлитель) PWRs require the fast fission neutrons to be slowed down (a process called moderation) in order to interact with the nuclear fuel and sustain the chain reaction. The coolant water is used as a moderator by letting the neutrons undergo multiple collisions with light hydrogen atoms in the water, loosing speed in the process.


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Control (Управление) Control rods are used to maintain primary system temperature at the desired point. The reactor control rods, inserted through the reactor vessel head directly into the fuel bundles, are moved for the following reasons: to start up the reactor; to compensate for nuclear poison inventory; To compensate for nuclear fuel depletion.


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Достоинства (Advantages)


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Недостатки (disAdvantages)


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Test for the Audience Do you know this words?


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Albeit - сокр. от all though it be (that) хотя и i.e. - сокр. от id est то есть Vice versa - наоборот, обратно, противоположно Approximately - приблизительно, около, почти Correspondingly - соответственно To shut down - отключить, остановить


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Thank you for attention


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