Music Genres2013MSITWeek 2 : Country

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CUSMLT301A Apply Knowledge of Genre to Music Making Class 2 14/2/2013 Blair Hughes Music Genres 2013 MSIT Week 2 : Country

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A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other types of music. There are a number of criteria often used to classify musical genres including: The Art/Popular/Traditional distinction (I.e Classical/general public/Folk) Time period (I.e. 60’s rock) Regional and national distinctions (I.e. Australian music can be ‘Australian Pub Rock’) Technique and instrumentation (I.e Rock Music= Guitars/ Dance Music= synthesizers and/or drum machine) Fusional origins (I.e Blues Rock or Swamp Hip Hop) Sociological function (I.e Wedding music or Christmas music) Music Genres

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Rhythm of the train…chugg-a-lug sound Twang Hardships, harsh times, blues, heartbreaking, emotional Sense of Home Beer and whisky Cowboys and Cowgirls Texas, Tennessee, Memphis, Mid-West America. By and for adults, not teenagers Origins in white working class of 1940’s-50’s Broken hearts, redemption, destroyed lives, melodrama Country MUSIC IS……

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Immigrants to North America brought the music and instruments of the Old World along with them. Most important possession was an instrument and their folktales, folk songs and musical traditions. Early Scottish settlers enjoyed the fiddle because it could be played to sound sad and mournful or bright and bouncy Other early instruments that contributed to the country sound were the fiddle, the Italian mandolin, the Spanish guitar, and the West African banjo This early country music is often referred to as “old-time” music. The rush to the ever-expanding western frontier saw music become integral to American life in the 19th century. All aspects of life were celebrated in song. The inventions of the radio, television, and other electronic media shape the progress of country music in the 20th century. Really began to gain wider exposure in the rural Southern United States in the 1920s with the Carter Family. Beginning in 1927, and for the next 17 years, the Carters recorded some 300 old-time ballads, traditional tunes, country songs and gospel hymns, all representative of America's south-eastern folklore and heritage. Week 2: Country music

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Often, when many people think or hear country music, they think of it as a creation of European-Americans. However, a great deal of style—and of course, the banjo, a major instrument in most early American folk songs—came from African Americans. One of the reasons country music was created by African-Americans, as well as European-Americans, is because blacks and whites in rural communities in the south often worked and played music together on the railroads. The first commercial recordings of what was considered country music were "Arkansas Traveller" and "Turkey in the Straw" by fiddlers Henry Gilliland & A.C. (Eck) Robertson on June 30, 1925 for Victor Records. Columbia Records began issuing records with "hillbilly" music (series 15000D "Old Familiar Tunes") as early as 1924.   In April 1924, "Aunt" Samantha Bumgarner and Eva Davis became the first female musicians to record and release country songs.   Early country music recordings

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One effect of the Great Depression was to reduce the number of records that could be sold. Radio, and broadcasting, became a popular source of entertainment, and "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, and as far west as California. The most important was the The Grand Ole Opry radio show which aired starting in 1925 by WSM-AM in Nashville to the present day. WSM's 50,000 watt signal (1934) could often be heard across the country and helped to popularise country music. COUNTRY MUSIC AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION OF 1929

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During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Some of the popular singing cowboys from the era were Gene Autry, the Sons of the Pioneers and Roy Rogers.   Patsy Cline was best known for her rich tone, emotionally expressive and bold contralto voice. She died in a place crash aged 30. She helped pave the way for headlining women in country music. Prior to the early 1960's, so-called "girl singers" were seen by the male-dominated realm of country music as mere "window dressing", only necessary to attract male listeners to their shows. Singing cowboys and dancing cowgirls

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By the end of World War II, "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass had emerged when Bill Monroe played at the Grand Ole Opry. In the post-war period, country music was called "folk" in the trades, and "hillbilly" within the industry. In 1944, The Billboard replaced the term "hillbilly" with "folk songs and blues," and switched to "country" or "country and Western" in 1949. Good examples include: Alison Krauss, Bob Monroe, Nitty Gritty Dirt Grass Band, OCMS, The Stanley Brothers. Bluegrass

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The Ryman Theatre Nashville Birthplace of bluegrass

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Another type of stripped down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, bass, dobro or steel guitar (and later) drums became popular, especially among poor white southerners. Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys personified this music which has been described as: "a little bit of this, and a little bit of that, a little bit of black and a little bit of white...just loud enough to keep you from thinking too much and to go right on ordering the whiskey.” HONKY TONK

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Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Rockabilly was a mixture of rock-and-roll and hillbilly music. During this period Elvis Presley converted over to country music. He played a huge role in the music industry during this time. Good examples include: Elvis and Johnny Cash rockabilly

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Beginning in the mid 1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1970s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee. Under the direction of producers such as Chet Atkins, Owen Bradley, and later Billy Sherrill, the sound brought country music to a diverse audience and helped revive country as it emerged from a commercially fallow period.   This subgenre was notable for borrowing from 1950s pop styling's: a prominent and "smooth" vocal, backed by a string section and vocal chorus.   Nashville's pop song structure became more pronounced and it morphed into what was called countrypolitan. Countrypolitan was aimed straight at mainstream markets and it sold well throughout the later 1960s into the late 1970s. It started with singers like Glen Campbell, Bobbie Gentry, John Denver, Olivia Newton-John, Anne Murray, Marie Osmond, B. J. Thomas, The Bellamy Brothers, and Linda Ronstadt having hits on the country charts.   The Nashville sound and countrypolitan

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Country pop or soft pop, with roots in both the countrypolitan sound and in soft rock, is a subgenre that first emerged in the 1970s. Although the term first referred to country music songs and artists that crossed over to top 40 radio, country pop acts are now more likely to cross over to adult contemporary music.   During the mid-1970s, Dolly Parton, a highly successful mainstream country artist since the late '60s, mounted a high profile campaign to crossover to pop music, culminating in her 1977 hit "Here You Come Again”. COUNTRY POP

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In the aftermath of the British Invasion of 60’s, many desired a return to the "old values" of country and rock and roll. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Early innovators in this new style of music in the 60s and 70s included Bob Dylan who was the first to revert to country music with his 1967 album John Wesley Harding followed by rock n' roll icon band The Byrds, the Grateful Dead, Neil Young, Commander Cody, The Allman Brothers, The Marshall Tucker Band, Poco, Buffalo Springfield, and The Eagles among many. The Rolling Stones also got into the act with songs like "Honky Tonk Women" and "Dead Flowers”. Gram Parsons EmmyLou Harris Country rock

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Derived from the traditional and honky tonk sounds of the late 1950s and 1960s and mixed with the anger of an alienated subculture of the nation during the period, outlaw country revolutionized the genre of country music. The term outlaw country is traditionally associated with Hank Williams, Jr, Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, David Allan Coe, Whitey Morgan & The 78's, John Prine, Billy Joe Shaver, Gary Stewart, Townes Van Zandt and with a few female vocalists such as Jessi Colter and Sammi Smith. Outlaw country

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"Swamp" is a fusion genre of country which originated in the southern US. It is the result of the integration of rockabilly and country artists with the soul explosion of the mid-60s, aided by a heavy infusion of the gritty sub-genre known as "swamp blues," and also with a heavily rhythmic backbone that, at its loosest, could almost be described as funk. It's a style whose primary yardstick is earthiness. Best example is Creedence Clearwater Revival COUNTRY SWAMP

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Alternative country (sometimes alt-country, insurgent country, or Americana is a loosely defined sub-genre of country music, which includes acts that differ significantly in style from mainstream or pop country music. It has been used to describe country music bands and artists that have incorporated influences ranging from roots rock, bluegrass, rockabilly, honky-tonk, alternative rock, folk rock, and sometimes punk. Good examples in 2012 are Gillian Welch and Band of Horses ALTERNATIVE OR ALT-COUNTRY

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In the 1990s, country music became a worldwide phenomenon thanks to Billy Ray Cyrus and Garth Brooks. Female artist such as Reba McEntire, Faith Hill, LeAnn Rimes and Shania Twain all released platinum selling albums in the 90s. The Dixie Chicks became one of the most popular country bands in the 90s and early 00s. Their 1998 debut album Wide Open Spaces went on to become certified 12x platinum while their 1999 album Fly went on to become 10x platinum. In the early-mid 1990s, country western music was influenced by the popularity of line dancing.   Rise of Sugarland, Lady Antebellum and Taylor Swift  COUNTRY MUSIC IN THE 1990’s-2000’s

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Influenced by American country music it has developed a distinct style, shaped by British and Irish folk ballads and Australian bush balladeers like Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson.   Folk songs sung in Australia between the 1780s and 1920s based around such themes as the struggle against government tyranny, or the lives of bushrangers, swagmen, drovers, stockmen and shearers Popular songs from this tradition include The Wild Colonial Boy, Click Go The Shears, The Queensland Drover and The Dying Stockman. Later themes which endure to the present include the experiences of war, of droughts and flooding rains, of Aboriginality and of the railways and trucking routes which link Australia's vast distances. Slim Dusty Kasey Chambers, Sara Storer, The McClymots, Gina Jefferies, The Waifs, JBT Keith Urban, Troy Casser Daly, John Williamson, Archie Roach, Jimmy Little, Adam Harvey Country music has also been a particularly popular form of musical expression among Indigenous Australians. Troy Cassar-Daley is among Australia's successful contemporary indigenous performers Aboriginal artists and Kev Carmody and Archie Roach employ a combination of folk-rock and country music to sing about Aboriginal rights issues.   COUNTRY MUSIC IN AUSTRALIA

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Country music often consists of ballads and dance tunes with generally simple forms and harmonies accompanied by mostly string instruments such as banjoes, electric and acoustic guitars, fiddles such as violins, and harmonicas Instruments used in COUNTRY MUSIC

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Johnny Cash The Carter Family Buddy Holly John Denver Hank Williams Willy Nelson The Eagles Loretta Lynn Kenny Loggins Dolly Parton Garth Brooks Keith Urban Dixie Chicks Seasick Steve Emmylou Harris Ray Charles Wayland Jennings Elvis Presley Creedance Clearwater Revival Pasty Cline George Jones Marty Robbins Band of Horses Old Crow Medicine Show Gillian Welch and Dave Rawlings Country musicians

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Top 100 Country Tracks: Top 500 Country Songs of All Time: CMT Country Music Top 100: Country’s Top 100: Country tracks

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Country Music Channel: Country Music Association of Australia: Country Music Bulletin: History of Australian Country Music History of Country Music: Country Music History: Country Music Startpage: - United States International Country Music Conference: Tamworth Country Music Festival: Brisbane Country Radio: Australian Country Music: Urban Country Music Festival: Gympie Music Muster Festival: Country links

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Andrew Morris The Gin Club Texas Tea Kev Carmody Steve Grady Sue Ray The Good Ship Rattlehand Halfway COUNTRY MUSIC IN BRISBANE

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Bring two songs to class on the following genre Soul Music Present one YouTube clip to play in class and talk about for 30 seconds. Post one to the Class Forum Include in both of these, your brief comments on some of following aspects. The style and look of the artist/genre Musical instruments used Cultural significance Geographical location Other artists in this genre What influences does this genre pull from? HOMEWORK

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BBC country music documentary: Carter Family: Arkansas Traveller: Grand Ole Opry: Patsy Cline: OCMS: Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys: Elvis: Johnny Cash: John Denver: Dolly Parton: Eagles: Emmylou Harris: Willie Nelson: CCR: Gillian Welch: Band of Horses: Billy Ray Cyrus: Slim Dusty: Andrew Morris: The Gin Club: Texas Tea: Links to songs used today