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Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)

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Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder

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SIGNS and SYMPTOMS Has difficulty processing and remembering or recalling non-verbal environmental sounds. May process thoughts and ideas slowly and have difficulty explaining them. Misspells and mispronounces similar-sounding words or omit syllables

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Maybe confused with figurative language Often distracted by background sounds/noises Finds it difficult to stay focused on or remember a verbal presentation or lecture

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No sense of direction Has difficulty comprehending complex sentence structure or rapid speech “ Ignores” people Says “ WHAT?” a lot

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Show rather than explain Supplement with more intact senses Reword or help decipher confusing oral and/or written directions Teach abstract vocabulary, word roots, synonyms/antonyms

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Vary pitch and tone of voice, alter pace, stress key words Ask specific questions Allow them 5-6 seconds to respond (“think time”) Have the student constantly verbalize concepts, vocabulary words, rules, etc.

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DYSCALCULIA A term referring to a wide range of life-long learning disabilities involving math.

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SIGNS and SYMPTOMS Shows difficulty understanding concepts of math Has difficulty understanding and doing word problems Has difficulty sequencing information or events

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Exhibits difficulty using steps involved in math operations Shows difficulty understanding fractions Is challenged making change and handling money Displays difficulty recognizing patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing

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Has difficulty putting language to math processes Has difficulty understanding concepts related to time Exhibits difficulty organizing problems

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STRATEGIES   Allow use of fingers and scratch paper Use diagrams and draw math concepts Provide peer assistance Suggest use of graph paper Suggest use of colored pencils to differentiate problems Work with manipulatives

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Draw pictures of word problems Use nemonic devices to learn steps of a math concept Use rhythm and music to teach math facts and to set steps to a beat Schedule computer time for the student for drill and practice

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DYSGRAPHIA Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects written expression.

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SIGNS and SYMPTOMS May have illegible printing and cursive writing Shows inconsistencies: Has unfinished words or letters, omitted words

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Inconsistent spacing between words and letters Exhibits strange wrist, body or paper position Has difficulty pre-visualizing letter formation Copying or writing is slow or labored Shows poor spatial planning on paper Has cramped or unusual grip/may complain of sore hand Has great difficulty thinking and writing at the same time

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STRATEGIES Suggest use of word processor Avoid chastising student for sloppy, careless work Use oral exams Allow use of tape recorder for lectures Allow the use of a note taker Provide notes or outlines to reduce the amount of writing required

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Reduce copying aspects of work Allow use of wide rule paper and graph paper Suggest use of pencil grips and /or specially designed writing aids Provide alternatives to written assignments (video-taped reports, audio-taped reports)

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DYSLEXIA Dyslexia is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty reading

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SIGNS and SYMPTOMS Before school Late talking Learning new words slowly Difficulty learning nursery rhymes Difficulty playing rhyming games

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School age Reading well below the expected level for your child's age Problems processing and understanding what he or she hears Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions Problems remembering the sequence of things

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Difficulty seeing (and occasionally hearing) similarities and differences in letters and words Inability to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word Difficulty spelling Trouble learning a foreign language

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Teens and adults Difficulty reading, including reading aloud Trouble understanding jokes or expressions that have a meaning not easily understood from the specific words (idioms), such as "piece of cake" meaning "easy“ Difficulty with time management

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Difficulty summarizing a story Trouble learning a foreign language Difficulty memorizing Difficulty doing math problems

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STRATEGIES Expose the child to early oral reading, writing, drawing, and practice to encourage development of print knowledge, basic letter formation, recognition skills and linguistic awareness (the relationship between sound and meaning).

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Have your child practice reading different kinds of texts. This includes books, magazines, ads and comics. Include multi-sensory, structured language instruction. Practice using sight, sound and touch when introducing new ideas.

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Seek modifications in the classroom. Use books on tape and assistive technology. Get help with the emotional issues that arise from struggling to overcome academic difficulties.

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DYSPRAXIA A disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control.

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SIGNS and SYMPTOMS Exhibit poor balance; may appear clumsy; may frequently stumble Shows difficulty with motor planning Demonstrates inability to coordinate both sides of the body Has poor hand-eye coordination Exhibits weakness in the ability to organize self and belongings

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Shows possible sensitivity to touch May be distressed by loud noises or constant noises like the ticking of a clock or someone tapping a pencil May break things or choose toys that do not require skilled manipulation

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Has difficulty with fine motor tasks such as coloring between the lines, putting puzzles together; cutting accurately or pasting neatly Irritated by scratchy, rough, tight or heavy clothing

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STRATEGIES Pre-set students for touch with verbal prompts, “I’m going to touch your right hand.” Avoid touching from behind or getting too close and make sure peers are aware of this Provide a quiet place

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Warn the student when bells will ring or if a fire drill is scheduled Whisper when working one to one with the child Allow parents to provide earplugs or sterile waxes for noisy events such as assemblies Make sure the parent knows about what is observed about the student in the classroom

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Refer student for occupational therapy or sensory integration training Be cognizant of light and light sources that may be irritating to child Use manipulatives, but make sure they are in students field of vision and don’t force student to touch them