Adapting digital storytelling for Higher Education

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Adapting digital storytelling for Higher Education Daniela Gachago, Fundani CHED May 2014 @dgachago17

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We listen to stories in order to be changed (Krog, Mpolweni, Ratele 2009)

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Larger groups Time constraints Integrated into curriculum / specific topics / specific outcomes, critical readings Limited support / ethical considerations Limited access to technology / BYOD Follow-up – reflective essay, debriefing sessions Assessment

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Digital curriculum stories (Bellis 2014) Digital narratives (Clarke and Thomas 2012) DST vs dst (Lewis 2014)

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(Kuropatwa 2014)

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Staff workshops Traditional 3-5 day workshops Condensed 1 day workshop with individual follow-up Student projects 3-5 day workshops Workshops over 6-9 weeks

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ECP Architectural Technology lecturers 4th year Education students ECP Architectural Technology students

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Mobile learning and digital stories

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(Kuropatwa 2014)

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Focus on voice (Simsek 2012) Student identity / agency (Hull and Katz 2006) Critical reflection (Long 2011, Ivala et al 2013) Engagement with diversity (Koyabashi 2012; Condy et al 2011) Social cohesion / social pedagogy (Benmayor 2008) Interplay of emotional and cognitive labour (Coventry 2008, Opperman 2008) Pedagogy of discomfort (Gachago et al 2013) Counterstorytelling / alternative capital (Vaseduvan 2010, Gachago et al. 2014, Yosso 2005) Social justice education (Simsek 2012; Condy et al 2013, Gachago et al 2013, Gachago et al in press)

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‘Creating and sharing digital stories is one way that this can be achieved as it not only captures the experiences and hopes, but also shares them with a wide and diverse audience, thereby establishing a social presence.’ (Thumbran, 2010: 18)

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So yes, if you get exposed to another person’s culture, surely you will respect that culture eventually and you will learn about that person and you see that person with more respect and in a better light. Everybody has their own story to tell. So digital story allows you to tell your specific story and share it amongst everybody in your classroom.

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When my story was played along with everyone’s story, I could not help but get emotional, for the first time in four years I cried and felt very proud and less ashamed of my background…and another thing that made me feel very proud was when some colleagues of mine were touched and inspired by my story. I will never forget that Wednesday, because I got to know my fellow students more, they got to know me more… (2011 final year education student)

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I just want to say now that: It gives me hope for the future in South Africa because looking at the 70 odd teachers that are moving out of here next year. A lot of them identified social issues but not just identify … they have actually given proactive suggestions to what is happening, how to better those issues that our country is facing I think that itself is hope right there. That there people that are thinking of way, improvements, I think that is why they are people out there who want to make a difference in the community even if it is just one change there its like one change that can make changes (2013 final year education student)

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(Kuropatwa 2014)

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4th year BTECH ECP Nursing 3rd year GIS course 1st year Ind Design

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Flexibility / Adaptability Digital literacies (Ohler 2006) Authentic acquisition of content Alternative assessment tool Link to communities – bridging academic content and personal lives Engaging 21st century students (Robin 2008) Multimodality (Brushwood 2014, Hull 2005, Vaseduvan 2010), learning with all senses Development of local content

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If you’re reading something and you get to watch it , so you’re absorbing it, hearing it and you’re doing it especially because part of you were doing the whole thingy. So as you’re doing it, you’re learning from it and it was fun like most videos it was fun. So you kind of want to play the video over and over and you know… it was the fun part like apply what you learnt into the movie … Thembani: I feel like the video it’s kind of good way of learning like I will prefer the video like in anything. Interviewer: Why?

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Focus on open source / freely available software on the web Audacity & MovieMaker Photostory

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Technology Assessment Time Quiet recording space Diverse literacy skills – importance of team teaching Support – peer facilitators Adapting model to specific discipline Process vs product Dissemination of stories (access, copyright) Ethical issues (counselling etc)

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Authentic Task Digital literacy skills Content –based stories Experience –based stories

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Any questions? ETU blog: YouTube channel: Contact: [email protected], 460 3795

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Digital Storytelling YouTube Channel

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Benmayor, R. 2008. “Digital storytelling as a signature pedagoy for the new humanities,” Arts and Humanities in Higher Education (7), pp. 188–204. Brushwood Rose, C., and Low, B. 2014. “Exploring the ‘craftedness’ of multimedia narratives: from creation to interpretation,” Visual Studies (29:1), pp. 30–39. Condy, J., Chigona, A., Gachago, D., and Ivala, E. 2013. “Paradoxes of social inclusion reflected in a digital story-telling project,” in Proceedings of the 15th annual conference on world wide web application, A. Koch and P. A. van Brakel (eds.), Cape Town. Condy, J., Chigona, A., Gachago, D., and Ivala, E. 2012. “Preservice students’ perceptions and experiences of digital storytelling in diverse classrooms,” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET) (11:3), pp. 278–285. Clarke, R. G. H., & Thomas, S. (2012). Digital Narrative and the Humanities: An Evaluation of the Use of Digital Storytelling in an Australian Undergraduate Literary Studies Program. Higher Education Studies, 2(3), 30–43. doi:10.5539/hes.v2n3p30 Coventry, M. 2008. “Engaging gender: student application of theory through digital storytelling,” Arts and Humanities in Higher Education (7:2), pp. 205–219. Gachago, D., Ivala, E., Condy, J. and Chigona, A. 2014 forthcoming 'Using Digital Counterstories as Multimodal Pedagogy among South African Pre-service Student Educators to produce Stories of Resistance' , Electronic Journal for eLearning. Gachago, D., Ivala, E., Barnes, V., Gill, P., Felix-Minnaar, J., Morkel, J., & Vajat, N 2014 forthcoming. Towards the development of digital storytelling practices for use in resource-poor environments, across disciplines and with students from diverse backgrounds. South African Journal for Higher Education (SAJHE). Gachago, D., Ivala, E., Condy, J., and Chigona, A. 2013. “Journeys across Difference: Pre- Service Teacher Education Students’ Perceptions of a Pedagogy of Discomfort in a Digital Storytelling Project in South Africa Daniela Gachago 1 , Eunice Ivala, Janet Condy and Agnes Chigona,” Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning (1:1), pp. 22–52. Ivala, E., Gachago, D., Condy, J., and Chigona, A. 2013. “Digital Storytelling and Reflection in Higher Education: A Case of Pre-service Student Teachers and Their Lecturers at a University of Technology,” Journal of Education and Training Studies (2:1), pp. 217–227. Hull, G. A., and Nelson, M. E. 2005. “Locating the Semiotic Power of Multimodality,” Written Communication (22), pp. 224–261. Hull, G. A., and James, M. A. 2007. “Geographies of hope: A study of urban landscapes and a university-community collaborative.,” in Blurring boundaries: Developing writers, researchers, and teachers: A tribute to William L. Smith, P. O’Neill (ed.), Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, pp. 250–289. Kobayashi, M. 2012. “A digital storytelling project in a multicultural education class for pre- service teachers,” Journal of Education for Teaching (38:2), pp. 215–219. Kuropatwa, D. 2014. We learn through stories. Lambert, J. 2013. Digital storytelling: capturing lives, creating communities, (4th ed.) New York: Routledge. Long, B. 2011. “Digital Storytelling and Meaning Making: Critical Reflection , Creativity and Technology in Pre-service Teacher Education,” in Proceedings of the Digital storytelling conference, pp. 1–27. Oblinger, D. G. 2008. “Growing up with Google - What it means to education,” . Ohler, J. 2006. “The World of Digital Storytelling,” Educational Leadership (63:4), pp. 44–47. Oppermann, M. 2008. “Digital storytelling and American Studies: critical trajectories from the emotional to the epistemological,” Arts and Humanities in Higher Education (7:2), pp. 171–187 Robin, B. R. 2008. “Digital Storytelling?: A Powerful Technology Tool for the 21st Century Classroom,” Theory Into Practice (47:3), pp. 220–228. Simsek, B. 2012. “Enhancing Women’ s Participation in Turkey through Digital Storytelling,” Journal of Cultural Science (5:2), pp. 28–46. Vasudevan, L., Schultz, K., and Bateman, J. 2010. “Rethinking Composing in a Digital Age: Authoring Literate Identities Through Multimodal Storytelling,” Written Communication (27:4), pp. 442–468. Yosso, T.J. 2005. Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1): 69–91. Available at: [Accessed March 10, 2012].