Education at a Glance


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Education at a Glance 2014


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Qualification levels in Europe have risen markedly… …but don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 2


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A world of change – higher education Cost per student Graduate supply


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A world of change – higher education Cost per student Graduate supply United States


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A world of change – higher education United Kingdom


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education


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A world of change – higher education Iceland Poland UK Australia New Zealand


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A world of change – higher education US P


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More people benefit from education than ever before 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds, and percentage-point difference between these two groups Chart A1.3 Percentage points


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Many more people are expected to graduate from academically-oriented tertiary education First-time graduation rates in tertiary-type A education (1995 and 2012) Chart A3.2 - A


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Nearly 60% of young adults are expected to enter university programmes Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2012) Chart C3.1 %


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Women and men are differently represented in some fields of education Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2012) Chart A.3 - Field


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Women are more likely than men to earn a university degree, but less likely a doctorate Percentage of graduas teawarded to women by level of educatio() Chart A3_Gender


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China has almost caught up with the US in terms of high-school completion Upper secondary graduation rates (2012) Chart A2.1 %


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In many countries those without an upper secondary education face an increasing unemployment risk Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2005, 2010 and 2012) Chart A5.2 - BS %


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Qualifications don’t always translate into strong foundation skills 26


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Literacy proficiency is determined by educational attainment but not in the same way across countries Mean literacy score, by educational attainment (2012) Chart A1.4


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The shares of highly literate tertiary graduates are very different across countries Percentage of adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) Chart A1.5


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Younger adults perform better in literacy proficiency than older adults Percentage of younger and older adults scoring at literacy proficiency Level 4 or 5 in the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012) Chart A1.6


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Graduates of vocational programmes are usually older than graduates of general programmes Average age of upper secondary graduation (2012) Chart A2.2


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Most students complete upper secondary education in the standard time allotted, but some take more time Successful completion of upper secondary programmes (N: theoretical duration of the programmes) Chart A2.4


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Girls are more likely than boys to complete their upper secondary education in the standard time allotted Successful completion of upper secondary programmes, by gender (N: theoretical duration of the programmes) Chart A2.5 %


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The rising tide has not lifted all boats… …and in some countries educational mobility is slowing down 33


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Between 20% and 60% of adults are more educated than their parents Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is higher than (upward mobility) or lower than (downward mobility) that of their parents Chart A4.3 - Mob


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Close to half of the adults have the same education as their parents Percentage of 25-64 year-old non-students whose educational attainment is the same as (status quo) that of their parents Chart A4.3 - SQ


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In most countries, upward educational mobility tends to be lower in the younger generations Proportion of upward mobility across age groups Graph Mobility A4


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Equitable access to tertiary education and educational mobility are not the same thing Relationship between the share of upward mobility among 25-34 year-olds and the likelihood of participating in tertiary education (values in reverse order) Mobility Odds A4


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Those who need lifelong learning most get the least of it Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education, by employment status (2012) Chart C6.3


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In 2012, 15% of 15-29 year-olds in OECD countries were neither employed nor in education or training, on average NEET population among 15-29 year-olds (2012) and change between 2011 and 2012 Chart C5.1


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Across OECD countries, about one in two 15-19 year-olds not in education is not working Percentage of 15-19 year-olds not in education, by labour market status (2012) Chart C5.3 %


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Prevalence of part-time work among young people differs significantly among countries Proportion of 15-29 year-olds employed who are employed part time (2012) Chart C5.4 - PT %


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More than 50% of adults participate in formal and/or non-formal education in a given year Adult participation in formal and/or non-formal education (2012) Chart C6.1


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Europe is now driving international student mobility… …the US accommodates a large but declining share of the market. 43


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In 2012, more than 4.5 million students were enrolled in tertiary education outside their country of citizenship Chart C4.1 Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2012) 25% of EU target


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In 2012, more than one in two foreign students were enrolled in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom or the United States Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2012) Chart C4.2


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New players are emerging in the international education market Trends in international education market shares (2000, 2012). Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination Chart C4.3


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International students comprise around 8% of tertiary enrolments, on average Student mobility in tertiary education (2012) Chart C4.4


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More than half of foreign students in tertiary education come from Asia Distribution of foreign students in tertiary education, by region of origin (2012) Chart C4.5


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Education remained a priority during the crisis… 49


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Between 2008 and 2011, only six countries cut public expenditure on educational institutions Impact of the economic crisis on public expenditure on education Chart B2.3 - T


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OECD countries spend USD 9 252 per student per year from primary through tertiary education Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions, by type of service (2011) Chart B1.1


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Between 2000 and 2011, most countries increased public expenditure on all services Total public expenditure on all services as a percentage of GDP (2000, 2011) Chart B4.2


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In 2011, OECD countries spent an average of 3.9% of their GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2011). From public and private sources, by level of education and source of funds Chart B2.2 - PS


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In most countries, spending per primary and secondary student increased by at least 5% between 2005 and 2011 Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions, by level of education (2008, 2011) Chart B1.6 - PS


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Expenditure per primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary student increased by at least 10% in most countries Relationship between annual expenditure per student in 2011 and change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 Chart B1.5 - PS


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Between 2005 and 2011, expenditure per tertiary student increased by 10%, on average Relationship between annual expenditure per student in 2011 and change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2011 Chart B1.5 - T


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In 2011, OECD countries spent an average of 1.6% of their GDP on tertiary education Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2011). From public and private sources, by level of education and source of funds Chart B2.2 - T


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As enrolment increased faster than expenditure, spending per tertiary student decreased in 12 countries Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions, by level of education (2008, 2011) Chart B1.6 - T


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OECD countries spend 0.5% of their GDP on research and development (R&D) in tertiary institutions, on average Expenditure on educational institutions for core services, R&D and ancillary services as a percentage of GDP, at the tertiary level of education (2011) Chart B2.4


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Few European countries have sustainable financing for tertiary education 60


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About 31% of spending on tertiary education comes from private sources, on average Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2011) Chart B3.1


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The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions increased from 25% in 2000 to 31% in 2011 Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2008 and 2011) Chart B3.3 - T


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Nearly 22% of public spending on tertiary education is devoted to supporting students, households and other private entities Public support for tertiary education (2011) Chart B5.3


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The increase in the share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions between 2000 and 2011 differs a lot among countries Change (in percentage points) in the proportion of private expenditure between 2000 and 2011 Chart B3.3 - Ch


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The share of students enrolled in private tertiary institutions has increased in 21 countries Students enrolled in tertiary-type A and advanced research programmes, by type of private institutions (2012) Chart C7.4


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The employment benefit of tertiary education is significant, but varies across countries Employment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2012) Chart A5.1


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In many countries those without an upper secondary education face an increasing unemployment risk Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2005, 2010 and 2012) Chart A5.2 - BS %


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While those who have attained tertiary education still have a low risk to be unemployed Chart A5.2 - T Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2005, 2010 and 2012) Tertiary education


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And also those with an upper secondary education are not immune to unemployment Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2005, 2010 and 2012) Chart A5.2 - US


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About 83% of employed adults with upper secondary education perform at levels 4 or 5 in literacy proficiency, on average Employed adults at literacy proficiency Level 2 or Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) Chart A5.4 - US


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About 89% of employed adults with tertiary education perform at levels 4 or 5 in literacy proficiency, on average Employed adults at literacy proficiency Level 2 or Level 4/5, by educational attainment (2012) Chart A5.4 - T


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Adults with a tertiary degree will earn 75% more than those with only upper secondary education Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment and gender (2012); upper secondary education = 100 Chart A6.1 - T


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Adults with below upper secondary education will earn around 22% less than those with upper secondary education Relative earnings of workers, by educational attainment and gender (2012); upper secondary education = 100 Chart A6.1 - B


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The private returns on an investment in tertiary education are substantial for men Private costs and benefits for a man and for a woman attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2010) Chart A7.2 Net present value


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The private returns on an investment in tertiary education are also substantial for women, but lower than that for men Private costs and benefits for a man and for a woman attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2010) Chart A7.2 (2)


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The earnings advantage for tertiary-educated older adults are higher than those of younger adults Differences in relative earnings between older and younger workers, by educational attainment (2012); earnings relative to workers with upper secondary education Chart A6.2


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Education and skills both contribute to better social outcomes Proportion of adults reporting that they are in good health Chart A8.1 - H % Proportion of adults reporting that they believe they have a say in government Proportion of adults reporting that they volunteer at least once a month Proportion of adults reporting that they can trust others


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An individual with a higher level of education is more likely to report better health Proportion of adults reporting that they are in good health, by educational attainment Chart A8.2 - HA


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An individual with higher levels of literacy is more likely to report better health Proportion of adults reporting that they are in good health, by PIAAC literacy proficiency level (2012) Chart A8.2 - HS


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An individual with a higher level of education is more likely to volunteer Proportion of adults reporting that they volunteer at least once a month, by educational attainment Chart A8.3 - VA


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An individual with higher levels of literacy is more likely to volunteer Proportion of adults reporting that they volunteer at least once a month, PIAAC literacy proficiency level (2012) Chart A8.3 - VS


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An individual with a higher level of education is more likely to trust others Proportion of adults reporting that they trust others, by educational attainment Chart A8.4 - TA


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An individual with higher levels of literacy is more likely to trust others Proportion of adults reporting that they trust others, by PIAAC literacy proficiency level (2012) Chart A8.4 - TS


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An individual with a higher level of education is more likely to believe they have a say in government Proportion of adults reporting that they believe they have a say in government, by educational attainment Chart A8.5 - GA


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An individual with higher levels of literacy is more likely to believe they have a say in government Proportion of adults reporting that they believe they have a say in government, by PIAAC literacy proficiency level (2012) Chart A8.5 - GS


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The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over USD 100 000, while the net private return is over USD 180 000 Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2010) Chart A7.1


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Annual spending per primary student is USD 8 296, on average Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2011), primary education Chart B1.2a - P OECD average


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Annual spending per secondary student ranges from USD 522 to USD 16 182 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2011) Secondary education Chart B1.2a - S


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Annual spending per tertiary student ranges from USD 1173 to USD 26000 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2011) Tertiary education Chart B1.2a - T


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The cumulative expenditure, per student, on OECD tertiary institutions is USD 58 450, on average Cumulative expenditure per student by educational institutions over the average duration of tertiary studies (2011 Chart B1.4


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Chart A9.4 Student performance and equity Below average mathematics performance Below average impact of socio-economic background Above average mathematics performance Below average impact of socio-economic background Below average mathematics performance Above average impact of socio-economic background Above average mathematics performance Above average impact of socio-economic background Relationship between mathematics performance and variation in performance explained by students’ socio-economic status


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Chart A9.5 Change between 2003 and 2012 in equity and mathematics performance


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Good progress in raising early childhood participation 93 Several EU countries have surpassed 2020 targets


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Some 70% of 3-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education Enrolment rates at age 3 in early childhood education (2005 and 2012) Chart C2.1


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The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level of resources devoted to pre-primary education Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education (2012). Public and private institutions, calculation based on full-time equivalents Chart C2.4


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Countries spend their money differently on schools… …and many high-performing school systems prioritise the quality of teachers over the size of classes. 96


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The salary cost of teachers per student varies widely across countries and depends on salary, class size, and teaching time Contribution of various factors to salary cost of teachers per student, in upper secondary education (2012) in USD Chart B7.4


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Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 475 compulsory hours of instruction during their primary and lower secondary education Compulsory instruction time in general education (2014) Chart D1.1 Total number of compulsory instruction hours


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The average size of primary school classes decreased slightly between 2000 and 2012 Average class size in primary education (2000, 2012) Chart D2.1


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The number of students per class tends to increase between primary and lower secondary education Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2012) Chart D2.2


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Only in 7 countries were relative salaries for teachers higher than those of comparably educated workers Teachers' salaries relative to earnings for tertiary-educated workers aged 25-64 (2012 or latest available year). Lower secondary teachers' salaries, in public institutions Chart D3.1


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Between 2009 and 2012, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first time since 2000, by around 5% at all levels of education OECD average, for countries with available data for all reference years, of the index of change between 2005 and 2012 (2005 = 100, constant prices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training. Chart Box D.3.2 Equivalent USD converted using PPPs


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Public-school teachers teach between 1 001 hours per year at the pre-primary level to 655 hours at the upper secondary level of education, on average Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2012). Net statutory contact time in public institutions Chart D4.2


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Statutory salary of lower secondary teachers with minimum training averages USD 30 735 at the beginning of their career and USD 40 570 after 15 years of experience. Lower secondary teachers’ salaries at different points in their careers (2012). Annual statutory teachers' salaries, in public institutions, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs Chart D3.2 In contrast, teachers at top of the salary scale holding the maximum qualification are paid, on average, USD 53 686


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Between 2005 and 2012, only slightly more than half of the countries show an increase in their salaries in real terms Change in lower secondary teachers’ salaries (2000, 2005, 2012). Index of change between 2000 and 2012 (2005 = 100, constant prices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training Chart D3.3 In most countries, salaries increased less since 2005 than between 2000 and 2005


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Private costs are higher than public costs for tertiary education Public versus private costs for a man attaining tertiary education (2010) Chart A7.4


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107 107 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/eag/eag2014 The publication The methodologies The complete database Email: [email protected] Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion


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