The Presentation inside:

Slide 0

Give me five +1! giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca 20

Slide 1

Monochromatic Coloration -A. melanoleuca "black and white“ >to stand out >to hide

Slide 2

Are Giant Pandas Bears? -a bear? A raccoon? Or something in their own? DNA of panda’s cells skull characteristics Brown bear Giant Panda Raccoon

Slide 3

Bamboo as their. . . . . .most important food -12 hours eating (low nutrients) -carnassials -”pseudo-thumb” . . .shelter -more than just bamboo

Slide 4

Effortless Swimmers sea otter Enhydra lutris 19

Slide 5

Made for Water -sleek bodies (streamline) -long, slightly flattened tails (propel) -back feet (steer) webbed feet -trapped air in fur (buoyancy) two layers : 1. dense undercoat 2. waterproof topcoat -close off their ears and nose underwater -back swimmer

Slide 6

Seafood Diet -sea urchins, crabs, fish, octopus, mussels, and clams -rock as tool -long, sensitive whisker for prey hunting -eat several times a day

Slide 7

Don’t Mess with my hand raccoon Procyon lotor 18

Slide 8

Wash Up Dude! -extreme sense of touch -mapache= Spanish word “one who takes everything in its hands” -five toes are dextrous can open door knobs, jars, and latches -ahrahkooonem= Powhatan word “one who scrubs with its hands” -very sensitive underwater examine by “rubbing” -P. lotor= “washer” literally wash their food

Slide 9

Behind the Mask -black fur around eyes “bandit’s mask” -live near humans snatch food sniff in the garbage steal pet food >considered as pest expectation reality

Slide 10

Please, Tail me your secret binturong Arctictis binturong 17

Slide 11

It’s a Bear! It’s a Cat! It’s Neither! -like bear’s plantigrade -like cat’s scratching their claws -it’s a “Bearcat” more related to civets and fossa (Viverridae) -nocturnal -eat fruits

Slide 12

Good Climber -not acrobatic -padded paws and long claws can turn 180 degrees -prehensile tail gigantic feather duster thick and muscular >extra grip

Slide 13

Smell but terrible Skunk Mephitis mephitis 16

Slide 14

Smelly Family -stink badger -15 to 30 inches -nocturnal -omnivorous depend in seasons eat insect, larvae, earthworm, small rodents, lizards, eggs -striped for coloration -anti-predator behavior

Slide 15

World-record Holder -Smelliest Animal in the World! -chemistry behind the spray: >very volatile >smelled up to half a mile away! -wild card: >potent when hydrolyze >reminder never made a skunk mad >flammable chemicals >rabies virus S-2-butene-1-thiol S-2-quinolimethyl thioacetate S-3-methyl-1-butanethiol

Slide 16

Slide 17

Tips on how to avoid being sprayed 1. The Face Off 3. The Stamp 2. Handstand 4. Presenting the Rear

Slide 18

The f’ear’ factor bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis 15

Slide 19

Cousin of Dogs -Family Canidae (True Dogs) -nocturnal -insectivore termites (70%) -special claws and more teeth -digging ability -enormous ears

Slide 20

The Bat Ears -O. megalotis= large + ear -umbrella-like 5 inches >maintaining body cool full of blood vessels >as a locator position towards the ground inside holes 6x more sensitive

Slide 21

I wish I had a whisker elephant seal Mirounga leonina 14

Slide 22

Marine mammals -clade Pinnipedia “fin-footed” 1. Phocidae (True Seal Family) >a.k.a. “earless seals” -sexual dimorphism in elephant seal proboscis “clap threats”

Slide 23

Whiskers -sensitive vibrissae to find food -works independently can determine the size of food -detects vibration can detect hydrodynamic underwater

Slide 24

Spell B-e-a-t sea lion Zalophus californianus 13

Slide 25

Marine Mammals -clade Pinnipedia 2. Otaridae (Sea Lion Family) >a.k.a. “eared seals” = pinnae -have flippers for swimming -thick layer of blubber

Slide 26

Acute Hearing -sensitive hearing most important sense underwater -can hear sound in range of 40 kHz humans is about 0.02 kHz -theories about echolocation no evidence to support dolphins and bats 100kHz -good directional ability -Only Animal That Can Follow the Beat!

Slide 27

A Sea lion or a Seal? Sea Lion -earflaps -elongated neck -long, hairless forefilppers -hindflippers can rotate >quadrupedal -swim underneath using foreflippers like wings of a bird -long, smooth whiskers Seal -earholes -short neck -short, hairy foreflippers w/ long claws -hindflippers straight out >wiggling on belly -swim by steering with foreflippers and powering with hindflippers -crimped or beaded whiskers

Slide 28

What’s my tusk? walrus Odobenus rosmarus 12

Slide 29

Marine Mammals -clade Pinnipedia 3. Odobenidae (Walrus Family) -monospecific -lives in Arctic -combined phocid and otariid traits >no earflaps >moves quadrupedally on land -whiskers >mustacial vibrissae -specialize canine teeth

Slide 30

The Tasks of Tusks to drag their huge body smash on ice protection social task dominance mating display to hunt breathing hole “tooth-walking” makes them vulnerable to extinction

Slide 31

The Big bad wolf gray wolves Canis lupus 11

Slide 32

The Wild Dog -Canidae (True Dog Family) -skull muzzle portion elongated wide zygomatic arches transverse lambdoidal suture -digitigrade -baculum present gray wolf doberman lambdoidal suture copulatory tie (bulbus glandis) digitigrade

Slide 33

A Carnivore Diet -“The Three Little Pigs” -eat as much as they can spend time hunting -the old, young, or sick -work as a team

Slide 34

Safety in Numbers -packs -alpha pair leaders organize the hunt -territorial boundaries pack patrol scent-marking howling

Slide 35

LET’S GIVE Him A ROUND OF A NOSE polar bear Ursus maritimus 10

Slide 36

The Polar Beast -Ursidae (Bear Family) -plantigrade -Largest land carnivore (10 feet) -top the food chain in Arctic

Slide 37

Cool Ways to Stay Warm! FUR fiber optic tubes ->black skin outer coat =long guard hairs thick undercoat prevent heat loss (on land) FAT 4 inches thick insulate from freezing air and cold water generate heat help float on water SHELTER they dig dens do not hibernate winter sleep delayed implantation

Slide 38

Noses with Legs! -Best Sense of Smell on Earth! average dog= 100x than humans blood hound= 300x than humans polar bear = 7x than a blood hound 2,100x better than humans -smell a seal 20 miles (32 kilometers) away from Malolos to Pagudpud

Slide 39

Slide 40

acrobatic supercat caracal Caracal caracal 09

Slide 41

Small, Wild Cat -Suborder Feliformia “cat-like forms” -Felidae (True Cat Family) -Felinae (Small-cats) -digitigrade -soft toe pads -retractile claws -short muzzle

Slide 42

Terrific Teasels -long, black ear tufts Functions: -keep lies out of the cat’s face -camouflage in tall grass -a way to communicate

Slide 43

Bird Hunting Tactics -obligate carnivores -solitary -amazing jumping ability 10 feet vertical high -scratch their claws

Slide 44

The Hunting machine tiger Panthera tigris 08

Slide 45

Hunting Gears -solitary -Largest Cat! -”stalk-and-ambush hunter” -inch-long claws -3-inch-long canine teeth bite in the neck to suffocate -sandpaper-rough tongues -retractile claws to keep sharp -stripes for camouflage long grass or wooded forest -paws to hide leftovers

Slide 46

Making a Splash -live near water source, mangrove forest, swamps -excellent and powerful swimmers webbed feet -relaxing and ambush prey in ponds, rivers

Slide 47

Gusto mo bang Majawmbag? jaguar Panthera onca 07

Slide 48

One Round K.O.! -Indian ‘Yaguar’ “he who kills with one leap” -not as large as tigers -not as good as leopard in climbing -not as fast as cheetah -The Strongest Bite Force of all Mammals! 2000 PSI 150 PSI (150)

Slide 49

Single-bound Killer -lion and tiger kill their prey by biting the throat suffocating until death -jaguar goes directly for the skull crushing it, piercing the brains long, sharp canines open the shells of turtles African Lion Skull Jaguar Skull

Slide 50

Slide 51

Cobra hitman mongoose Herpestes smithii 06

Slide 52

The Matrix -speed -agility -accuracy -timing -strong bites

Slide 53

Are They Immune? -venom= modified saliva -digested by acids in the stomach -thick coat subcutaneous layer -acetycholine= CH3COO(CH2)2N+(CH3)3 neurotransmitter different protein sequence mutated like in snakes >thus making the venom ineffective -tolerant in small dosage of venom but not immune to it

Slide 54

Tuwing hunting-gabi leopard Panthera pardus 05

Slide 55

Rest In Trees -arboreal -Strongest Climber of all Big Cats! -can climb as high as 50 feet while holding a prey on its mouth >larger and heavier -not always at the top of food chain lion, tiger, hyenas can kill leopard >to keep from being noticed

Slide 56

The Silent Killer -Silence and Stealth are the trademarks catch prey off guard -whiskers forward when walking backward sniffing -thick paw pads act as silencer -nocturnal -vision tapetum lucidum layer of tissue in the eye behind the retina reflects back the light to photoreceptors >eyeshine

Slide 57

Hyena siya! spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta 04

Slide 58

“Lick the Platter Clean” -praktikal na hayop -eat every part of the animal skin, hooves, horns, bone, and teeth some can’t digest although they still eat them >regurgitate

Slide 59

Mortal Enemies -lions and hyenas -killing prey only to have lions steal it -scavenger during the day clean up everything in their path garbage collectors of the Serengeti -carnivore at night kill lion cubs kill almost anything -humans caught shooting them because of what they are

Slide 60

Wild sprinter cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 03

Slide 61

-Fastest Land Animal! -120 kph (75 mph) -streamlined body deep chest, small head -flexible spine unattached clavicle -high-set eyes -“tear marks” keep sunlight out of his eyes seeing long distances -long tail for balance -non-retractable claws (Acinonyx) for traction no sheath of skin and fur Build for Speed

Slide 62

Dominant predator lion Panthera leo 02

Slide 63

The Mane Attraction -male is larger twice heavier than females -sexual dimorphism mane in males impressive mane of hair around his neck >protection against raking claws during fight >for mating display

Slide 64

One for All, All for One -Only Social in Cats! called “pride” don’t accept stranger -primary advantage hunt in group -contagious activity grooming, yawning -21 hours of sleeping unlike others sometimes sleep on tree to avoid flies and to get cool breeze -roar communication -top of the food chain but sometimes scavenge

Slide 65


Slide 66

The hypnotizer stoat Mustela erminea 01

Slide 67

The Magnificent -Mustelidae (Weasel Family) -Smallest Carnivores! 6.8 to 8.5 inches -but hunt bigger preys rabbits, hares -special behavior

Slide 68

Choreography -immobilizes prey by mesmerising them they dance -”weasel war dance” rapid movements strokes jumps wiggle

Slide 69

Dance of Death -caused by Skrjabingylus -bites the nape while grasping forefeet continues mild bite >surplus kill to avoid obesity

Slide 70